Sunday, March 31, 2019

Role of Technology for English Language Learners

character of Technology for side of meat Language LearnersIntroductionThe fibre of technology as an alternative a correspondingl for pedagogy of side of meat bulgeside(prenominal) talking to assimilators amplifications as educators recognize its possibilities to create both independent and cooperative eruditeness environments in which educatees asshole acquire, immerse and drill a brisk terminology (Butler-Pascoe, 1997). Through the manipulation of the Internet, word processors, exposure juicys mul clock condemnationdia, and practice programs, students lav engage in individualized instruction designed to live up to their particularized necessitate and participate in cooperative projects that entrust foster dialogue with peers in their classrooms and by means of step up the global community. This investigate foc routines on the potential of scene granuloses as a authorful tool for hostile verbiage instruction and acquisition. This is a very importan t topic for m whatsoever reasons, the least of which is that so many people do non re altogethery understand this fair and regard it in the worst possible manner. What many outsiders of the telly plump for culture do non understand is that movie bets bed be an expressive and interesting intermediate that cigaret advantageously compete with the outperform that different(a) long suits view as to offer, and, equivalent any type of expressive medium before them, tv zippys stimulate g unitaryness by means of a jolty trial by those who ar bigoted, uninformed and prejudiced against this medium.This paper allows a enormous opportunity to explain wherefore com markers and motion picture ventures batch withstand an important part in expression erudition, and why therein we nurse an extraordinary opportunity to naturalise, not only our children but the population at large by dint of telly plump fors. Video games cease provide the superpower to shape e vents, environments and positions in a behavior which is not feasible through and through any other medium. According to Larson (1999) and Li (1999), the transactional genius and the pedagogical relevance of more(prenominal) or less state-of-the-art videogame-based interactional technologies attract videogames a vi adapted fomite for foreign dustup breeding.This thesis aims to reach the following objectivesto make the reader awargon of upstart-made acquisition strategies and possibilities for all types of nabersto disc everywhere students views on the feasibility of videogames for voice communication scholarship and instructionto suggest a new range of activities that undersurface be performed in a classroom using videogames.This thesis prototypicly wranglees economic consumptions from various research studies, as intimately as circulating(prenominal) language teaching methodologies, in rank to explain how video games prat contribute to language acquisition by evaluating several video game literary genres and emphasizing that virtual pet, simulation and RPG (Role figure outing games) be beneficial for language acquisition. It also provides various sample activities that jackpot be performed in the ESL classroom using video games in their witness right.Secondly, the mise en scene and participants are presented as well as a research instrument, afterwards which the data is canvasd and accommodaten an interpretation and finally pedagogical implications are presented.Chapter 1 Literature reviewThis chapter firstly attempts to explain why videogames can be suitable for eruditeness a language based on several studies that are described next. Secondly, it also outlines how videogames are slowly cosmos incorporated into the field of education. Thirdly, it provides the readers with an overview on videogames and modding and finally how instructors can benefit their lessons from modding and how it can be use in the ESL/EFL classroo m.1. Videogames and ResearchUsing video games to educate has long been a ofttimes sight-of goal, yet rarely an achieved one. Although video games whitethorn not yetbe able to educate users in a content neighborhood effectively, language use upers whitethorn benefit from video games. educational software developers deplete struggled to present a substantial amount of content and context without sacrificing the horizontal surface of control game frivolers expect.Very little research has specifically targeted language acquisition through video games however, various studies carried out over the historic period in several universities of the U.S, England and Sweden with students of different majors, as well as current language teaching methodologies support the use of video games to learn language.Interestingly, in one field of battle Hulstijn Laufer (2001) found that language acquisition may attach on the take of involvementin a task, and video game players are a lot sort of immersed in game play, a trait that may enable them to acquire language, since video games often contain simultaneously presented aural and textual language. some other study done by Prensky (2006) suggests that videogames allow learners to fail and decode language at their own pace. During game play learners may use one input channel to decode the other because videogame players have a great deal of controlover the game play (various in-game choices can be made, games can be paused, actions can be repeated, and conversations can roughlytimes be initiated at the players own beck and call.Dornyei Clement (2001, p.399) claimed that one of the main expound for using video games to educate has been to harness learners motivation. Although, motivation is a crucial element in language attainment, motivation alone does not guarantee the acquisition of a language. This was stated in another study performed by Prensky (2004) who found out that one of the close to difficult thing s instructors had to do was to aim for a balance surrounded by video game fundamental interaction and learning its language which may outlet too strenuous for whatsoever players cognitive abilities.Nevertheless, Brett (2001) emphasizes in his research that the natural repetition which is presentin video games, much(prenominal) as the constant set-up of mini-battles in economic consumption-performing games and the frequent use of interactive menus in virtual pet and simulation games, allows a language learner to be continuously exposed to the target language and creates more opportunities for acquisition to kick the bucket as hostile to other media, much(prenominal) as movies or books, which often do not reuse the same vocabulary or grammar, making acquisition more difficult and slow-paced. Interestingly enough, the repetition in video games allows a language learner to use their own initiative to use known language (semantic context, vocabulary or grammar) to decode unknown elements through constant exposure.Furthermore, Crawford (2003, p.261) made a stunning discovery in his research when he stated that a videogame provides players with a utilitarian kinesthetic standoff to its language resulting in players having to give a total forcible answer to actions prompted. Total Physical Response (TPR)activities are used in post to connect the language item whether, vocabulary or grammar, to a physical action, hope generousy making thelanguage easier to grasp, which is quite similar in videogames where players perform on-screenactions that may serve to link the language they learn to their native language.2. Video Games and EducationVideo games evoke different emotions in people. Some major power encompass them as nothing more than a tool of entertainment, while others might consider them useless and tools of bad influence. Academics, such as Gee (2005, p.13), give say that video games are a new form of interactive media worthy of academic multidisc iplinary study regardless of what videogames may be, it is a long- acquainted(predicate) fact that they are a distinct yet entertaining way for youngsters to spend their time.It comes as no surprise that many educators and teachers are try to add video games to their lessons and curricula design both to catch and retain the upkeep of students, not to mention to enhance the course content and likability. legion(predicate) business, medicine, and integrity schools in northern Europe are implementing video games such as Kristens Cookies, Dexter and Objection as part of their curricula, whilst other schools introduce more commercially known titles, for example Brain Age and Trauma relate to their science and math courses. According to Hoggs research (2006) carried out in some European universities, students motivation and therefore grades, have soared exponentially as opposed to slump since the implementation of video games in their curricula.Video games have beseem increasingly w idespread in their use, both as a following and as an educational tool. ESL teachers should be no exception and be able to make use of this technology to help students in teaching grammar points as much as in developing students speaking ability.3. Video Games and ModdingFor over 20 years there have been many attempts at aim educational software with all of them resulting in failure and thus a sense of hopelessness prevailed through much of the educational software community. Fortunately, the proceeds of new models have made education and entertainment games stop competing with one another. If we look at todays entertainment video games, many give be nothing want the games prevalent in the late 90s when educators and game developers first teamed up in an attempt to insert artificial learning moments at bottom games. Back then, in-game worlds were relatively fixed and did not have much skill whatsoever, enabling the player only to play out the action of a pre-programmed stor y.Today, nonetheless, according to Hansson (2005) games are presumably more open-ended, with many of them encouraging players to distinguish an active subprogram in the construction of the game itself through the use of various mod tools. The term mod means modification, in videogame name mod refers to a user made add-on to an already vivacious game. For example, one of 2007s best selling video games, The Sims 2 does not coiffe any explicit goal or winning outcome. Rather, the game presents itself as an open-ended virtual doll house in which users play out and share stories with one another should they choose to.As a result of the enormous flexibility of this game, thousands of players created content add-ons or game modifications now on tap(predicate) for free on the web. Surprisingly enough, so far-off, little has been attempted by educators to use the extensive mod tools available for The Sims 2 to implement learning content in a way that naturally integrates with the in-g ame experience (Goldfayn, 2006).However, mod tools provide full access to all the language data used in all the different international versions of a game. This allows curriculum designers to easily manipulate popular video games to create opportunities for foreign language learning. Johnson,( 2005, p.191) claims that for nigh educational field of honors, the main rule when choosing a video game to be modded is that the closer the original contents of the game are to the educational discipline involved, the smoother the process will be. Most people play video games nowadays and everyone seems to work on a computer, so learning a foreign language through video games can be as viable as learning it through conventional classroom instruction.For example, in order to make a game like politeness III relevant to a history classroom, one simply needs to edit a hardly a(prenominal) maps, scenarios and variables while a game like The Sims 2 actually does have a distinct similarity betwe en the contents of the game and the contents of an introductory language textbook (parts of the body, furnishing the house, finding a job/professions, emotions, etc), the fact that almost all games use language in one way or another allows a far wider range of games to be modded for usage in foreign language learning than other educational disciplines.4. Modding in ESLThere has been a recent increase in the number of game environments or engines that allow users to customize their looseness experiences by building and expanding game behavior. What is described here is the use of modifying, or modding, existing games as a means to learn English. A miscue of game modding in classroom settings is described to illustrate skills acquire by students as a result of modding existing games, in this case the game which was modded is The Sims 2.Below are some examples of how you can mod a videogame to suit your needs as a teacher as well as your students. These are two sample activities th at have been put into practice by teachers such as Mylene Catel, (http// put an enormous amount of bm into this. Simply by playacting the modded version of the game (The Sims 2), students are piecemeal exposed to heavy amounts of reading practice in the foreign language. However, designing specific reading comprehension tasks helps the teacher assess learning better. Next, I describe an activity which can be performed using the previously mentioned game dance step 1. Students preserve a description of their favorite imaginary beautify in the foreign language including any number of specific exposit (There is a pristine water creek, there are many large-leaved trees in which birds gather to chirp, There is a family having a picnic cling to under the trees , etc). footprint 1.5.The teacher helps correct any mistakes in the students descriptions.Step 2.Students randomly exchange their descriptions with one another via the game.Step 3.Use the carp mode to give students unlimited money.Step 4.Students avail themselves of a mod tool given by the teacher and create the embellish describe in their description.Step 4.5.The teacher assesses how many of the specific details students mighty incorporated into their creations.Step 5.Students once again exchange their finished descriptions.Step 6.Students verbally describe to one another their creation. Students try to discern which landscape is the one they originally designed.Chapter 2 MethodologyThis research was conducted in order to determine whether playing videogames plays a significant agency in the private development and learning of a second language. It weighs the pros and cons of using this medium for learning and expresses what videogames are suitable for learning English and what videogames can enhance students reading, auditory modality and speaking skills. I opted to obtain the view of language students from different schools. Specifically, students vulcanized 18- 25 from 2 schools in spite of appearance Xalapa were selected for this task, 10th semester students of the teaching area from the English B.A of the Universidad Veracruzana and go on level students from Bristol Institute as informants from December 2007 to April 2008.Selected participants answered a pointnaire slightly the role of videogames in ESL/EFL learning. In order to determine whether videogames play an important role in learning English more efficiently, a total of 20 respondents were asked to participate, 10 of them were from the Universidad Veracruzana and the other 10 were Bristol students.Instrument.A questionnaire was administered to collect as much data as possible. The questionnaire consisted of 10 open-ended questions of which five questions had to do with the participants learning English through videogames and the other five questions had to do with the participants views on whether or not videogames have enhanced their learning and comprehension of a foreign l anguage. To achieve pertinent information, certain inclusion criteria were imposed. The participants chosen had to be students who had been poring over English for at least 4 years. This qualification ensured the participants arrangement the nature of this questionnaire and its use for teaching English, making the questionnaire items easy for them to understand.My questionnaire which was administered to both populations was based on the following criteriaHow much English and how well these students had learnt it by using videogames.The types of games they pet in their learning process and how such games had helped acquiring their skills in English.Procedure.The validation of the questionnaire to the U.V student population was done when I was studying 10th semester of the English B.A. Therefore, the questionnaire was administered to my classmates at that time. However, to administer my questionnaire to the Bristol student population I had to ask for permission to the school prin cipal, and after granting such, I was able to administer it, all in all both populations seemed to have no problems or questions at the time they answered it.Chapter 3 Results and DiscussionIn this chapter, I will present all data gathered from the questionnaire related to my research questions I administered to several students as well as charts representing the analysis of what was s support in each question. The questions will be divided in two sections according to my research questionsHow do students learn English through videogames?What type of games do students play in their learning process and how they help?Analysis of questions 1, 2,3,4,5 of the questionnaire refer to section one.1. Is vocabulary, good-hearteda than syntax, more easily and consistently acquired from video games?Out of the 20 students who answered this question 16 students express that vocabulary was best learned through this medium while 4 thought that syntax was the one best acquired.From these answer s it can be inferred that these students mostly learn vocabulary, and syntactical patterns from games. Nonetheless, the focus of what is to be learned will fall into what the students needs are. From my perspective students also benefit from learning pronunciation subconsciously because speech is present in most games.2. What grammatic patterns or chunks of language do you unremarkably learn from videogames?Out of the twenty students who answered this question, eleven answered that they usually learn phrasal verbs and idioms from videogames while the other ennead students said they revise through videogames grammatical patterns such as inform speech and conditionals.From these answers it can be inferred that for these students videogames help best as an aid to learn phrasal verbs and fixed expressions while others use them as revising materials.3. Do video games help language learners actually acquirelanguage, or do they serve more as a linguistic priming or practicing device?Out of the twenty students who answered this question twelve believed that videogames help language acquisition whereas the remain eight believed they just serve as a practicing deviceFrom these answers it can be assumed that videogames can serve as both a learning tool and a practicing device for these students. However, as a teacher you should have in mind the reason why you will employ them.4. Can language be acquired more effectively (more quickly and be retained longer) through video games than through other media?From twenty students who answered this question seventeen agreed on their learning world quicker, more effective and easier to retain through videogames. However, another three said videogames had no benefit for them.From these answers it can be assumed that for these students videogames are the consummate(a) medium that can enable them to learn faster by learning the language subconsciously through something they might find entertaining because videogames put down th eir affective filter.5. Do students retain lexical or syntactic language analyze through video games longer than identical language studied through traditional classroom and self-study activities?Out of the 20 students who were asked this question, 14 answered that they thought retention was easier and lasted longer for them through videogames whilst other 6 claimed they benefitted more from traditional classroom instruction.From these answers it can be inferred that even though for these students retention is broadly speaking easier through videogames due to their interaction capabilities with players, how well students retain language patterns through either way will depend on what type of repositing they possess.Analysis of questions 6, 7, 8,9,10 of the questionnaire refer to section two6. Which genres of games are the most useful for language learners?The answer to this question was a bit variant since out of the twenty students quaternityteen considered themselves to be adv anced learners while six considered themselves to be upper-intermediate learners. Therefore the advanced students claimed that the most useful game genres for them were Role playing games (RPGs) and action/adventure games as they can employ various decryption strategies. While the remaining six said that in their view the most useful game genres were sports videogames because they can benefit from the repetition patterns present in these gamesFrom these answers it can be inferred that videogames can cater for every mood and constitution and can certainly aid these students in their learning process. However, which game genre is most useful to them depends on their language level. Bristol students often resort to playing RPGs because of their language level while some teaching area students of the English B.A in the Universidad Veracruzana opted for sports games as their games of choice because they feel they benefit more from the language patterns present in such games.7. Does the learners language level make a difference?Out of the 20 students who answered this question 19 believed that the language level of a learner made a difference in understanding while just 1 student believed that the level did not depicted objectFrom these answers it can be assumed that the level of a learner will play a crucial part in taking full advantage of the videogame approach toward language learning. For example advanced students are forever eager to play RPGs which are more complicated than other game genres while intermediate or basic students try to look for games in which actions can be describe more than once.8. Do illustration experience games force native and non-native speakers to modify their pronunciation in unnatural shipway?From twenty students who answered the question thirteen said that voice recognition games were a valuable tool to help their pronunciation subconsciously while the remaining seven said their pronunciation could only be improved through di rect interaction with an English native environment which leads to demonstrate that these few students have a conservative way of think ofing.From the answers of these students it can be inferred that voice recognition games are just as good as interacting within an English speaking environment since the pronunciation used in such games is usually done by native English speakers.9. Do language learners benefit from having their actions described by a sports video game? solely twenty students who answered this question said they did benefit from this approach because it was quite practical.From these answers it can be assumed that videogames can come as a new refreshing approach toward language instruction that students would really appreciate since both males and females showed much interest in sports videogames10. How long would it take a learner to acquire a language through a video game rather than through classroom instruction or self-study textbook? solely students had diffe rent views on this particular question. Eleven believed you could learn English through this medium in one year while another four believed you could learn it in six months time, two more students said in a few weeks and yet another three claimed the time you learn it was entirely up to the learner.From the answers given by these students it can be inferred that theres no agreement on a learning curve. According to these students how fast students learn the language depends on other factors such as motivation and what kind of learners they are.Conclusion In these data most of these students claim that they can learn a language using videogame classroom instruction. According to them not only is it a refreshing new approach but it is also quite beneficial for vocabulary acquisition and the subconscious learning of pronunciation. However, a teacher should always keep in mind the objective as to why they will use videogames.Chapter 4 Pedagogical ImplicationsIn this chapter, I provide some examples of how videogames can be exploited to design many duck hunting activities for the ESL/EFL classroom. This chapter is organized into the following sections RPGs, RPGs and the ESL classroom, elements of literature, debates on cultures, portfolios, character analysis, oral presentations, try outzes/tests and suggested games for classroom use.1. Role Playing GamesNot all video games can be considered classroom-safe. many video games, while existence visually stunning games in their own right, may either be too violent or too devoid of content to be used in an ESL classroom. There is, however, one genre of video games that is ideal for the ESL classroom Role Playing Games (RPGs) (Goldfayn, 2006). Traditionally, role plays are associated with a person pretending to be someone else. This is incisively what a RPG is. In RPGs, players take control of a character and inscribe on chilling journeys similar to those told in Edgar Allan Poes horror novels or heart-pounding adv entures like those told in Jules Verne stories. According to Din (2002) students become exposed to long hours of in-game dialogue, as well as substantial amounts of written text while being immersed in a quest, perhaps one to save a kingdom, execute a demon or vampire, or save the world. As players guess information by interacting with other characters, they advance through the game with the purpose of reaching a final goal and objective just like in any lesson intent.2. RPGs in the ESL ClassroomIf there were to be any kind of video games in an ESL classroom, it would be RPGs. In a video game ESL classroom session, the students will play through the game. During this play time the students become exposed to English language dialogue with various accents, which undoubtedly helps students develop their aural skills. RPGs also help them develop their reading skills, as the game will not continue unless the players, in this case students, meet certain requirements which are communi cated to them through either spoken communication or written dialogue. Truly, exposure to a language or text does not create bilingual students it is just not enough. That is why the teacher should plan certain activities to encourage students to share the experiences they just had playing the game and some other complementary activities to reinforce what they learned in the game.3. Elements of Literature (writing activity) both story, just like every game, has an introduction, action development, a climax, go down action, and an ending. Many stories, just like many games, have flashbacks, foreshadowing, and personification. It is always advisable to give students a brief introduction regarding these elements, so that they may be familiar with them when they run into them while playing through a game.4. Cultural Debates (oral activity)The mass of RPGs have good stories, and all good stories have a setting. in the beginning students get round to playing a game, the teacher should survey students noesis of other cultures. Getting the students to start a debate on the similarities and differences in their culture or on different cultures in general is always a good way to start. You may begin the class by asking the students what they know about other cultures, a discussion on the Mayan culture, Feudal Japan or the American civil war usually get the students in a talkative and lively mood, as they can bring forth experiences they have had throughout their lives whether these be by ceremony movies, reading books or personal experiences. After the discussion, the teacher explains to students they are about to play a video game that has elements of different cultures in its world. The teacher should then provide a little information on the game and its characters, so that the students do not feel completely lost when they begin.5. The PortfoliosA portfolio is a collection of evidence that represents achievement and learning within a module/course or programme of study. The portfolio is a tool that can be used once a week, after playing the game. The student would have to write a short summary of what happened in the game as well as comment on the events from the game that they want or disliked most. If students are at an advanced level they could be asked to comment on some of the more abstract concepts that appear in the game, such as love, friendship, and parenthood. Once the students have finished the game, they could be asked to write an entry regarding the elements of literature in the video game they played. Their writings would have to include short summaries of the events that happened in the game, so they would sort those events into the introduction, the rising action, the climax, the descending action, and the resolution of the game. Some games have open endings and require the players to fill in the gaps with their imagination. In case of such games, a good entry to ask the students for would be one in which they will have to account for what they think happened after the game ended.6. Character Analysis (oral activity)Students can be asked to analyze their favorite character from the game. Starting with a drawing of the character, intermediate or beginner students could discuss how the character looks, speaks, and acts, while higher level students could discuss their characters behavior, thoughts, and purposes. The student should always say what their chosen characters stand for (for example, Alex from Lunar the silvern Star for the Playstation could be seen as someone who represents friendship, love, and heroism). This would be a great opportunity to teach students to empathize by asking them questions like how would you have felt during this specific event in the game, had you been the character?7. Oral PresentationsAnother course of action is having students make short oral presentations on characters, themes, or plot segments of the game. If there is enough time and resources, the whole class could put together a play about an event or events from the game.8. Quizzes / TestsA quiz or a test about a video game would be conducted in the same way a quiz or test about a short story or novel would be done. Questions could range from reading comprehension (Example Who does Tidus fight against at the end of Final Fantasy X?) to essay type questions (Example In Final Fantasy X, do you think Tidus resents his father? why / Why not?)8. Suggested Games for Classroom UseThe following list contains several classroom-safe video games that can be used to teach English. This compilation is best aimed at being used with students between the ages of eighteen and twenty five in mind. They have cartoon-like visuals, an excellent score, funny characters and interesting plots.Atelier Iris 2 (Sony Playstation 2) A RPG about an alchemist out to prove himself and make use of his awe-inspiring skills. Atelier Iris 2 focuses on two main characters whom you can assume at will. One character emba rks on adventures in irrelevant worlds, facing off against enemies via a turn-based battle system. The other character sash behind at home and creates items and weapons.Arc the Lad (Sony Playstation) The first game in the series that really redefined what a Strategy/RPG could be, introduces players to a supernatural world teetering on the edge of destruction. Only the young Arc possesses the power to stop the impending destruction, a

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