Saturday, August 31, 2019

Serial Killers in Modern America

In today’s society, America is a dangerous place for people to walk alone. We have definitely had our share of serial killers over the years. We have had the Harpes brothers in the 1800’s to the more modern day Jeffrey Dahmer. A serial killer in the United States is defined by Congress as â€Å"someone who murders a minimum of three or more people. † (Harris) Three-quarters of the world’s total serial killers have done their killing in the United States. True crime writers often claim that America’s first serial killer was H. H.Homes, but there were actually several before him. The first documented serial killers were two brothers named Micajah and Wiley Harpe. These two killed people for two reasons and they were for fun and profit. These two were notorious for their cut-throat ways, and the other outlaws were scared of them. (Ramsland) They terrorized the Natchez Trace which is known today as the Natchez Trace Parkway. Not much is known about the early history of the Harpes’, but they terrified everyone they came across. The Harpes even slaughtered two of their own children each. Ramsland) For a brief period of time the Harpes traveled with a group of river pirates who were merely concerned with enriching themselves. As you can imagine they did quite well at that. However, these pirates never intended for any physical harm to come to their victims, but the Harpes had other intentions. The incident that caused the Harpes to be kicked out of the group was when they tied a naked flatboat passenger to a blindfolded horse and sent it over a cliff. (Ramsland) From this point on that group of pirates referred to the two as â€Å"men turned into wolves. †Micajah Harpe admitted to a number of murders, but he said that there was only one that he was remorseful for, and that was the murder of his own child. His reason behind killing his own child was because the baby’s crying annoyed him. (Ramsland) Micajah would e nd up being killed by a pack of wolves, and Wiley was hung on February 8, 1804. The first documented serial killer was H. H. Holmes which made his mark on the 19th century by committing over 27 murders. (Kade)He was born, Herman Webster Mudgett in 1861. He started off as a very unruly child who enjoyed being cruel to animals. He would do most of his killing his hotel that was icknamed Murder Castle. The actual name of this hotel was never recorded. He used an advertisement to lure people that were going to attend Chicago’s World Columbian Exposition in 1893. Back in those day lodging was a hard thing to come by, so this allowed Holmes all the victims he wanted. His preference was blond females that he put through torture rituals. He would brutalize them and then incinerate them. He even sold some of the skeletons of his victims. No one ever suspected anything from him, because he had charm and good looks. It was until after Holmes’ execution that investigators would le arn more about what he had done.Some of the victims were locked up in soundproof rooms that had gas lines that would allow him to asphyxiate any victim at any time. (Kade) There were also some locked in a large soundproof bank vault and suffocated to death. Holmes was even quoted saying, â€Å"I was born with the devil in me. I could not help the fact that was a murderer, no more than the poet can help the inspiration to sing. I was born with the â€Å"Evil One† standing as my sponsor beside the bed where I was ushered into the world, and he has been with me since. † Now we fast forward to 1974 when women were vanishing from college campuses around the Washington and Oregon area.There was a 21 year old radio announcer named Lynda Ann Healy that was among the ones that went missing. Then in July of 1974 two women were seen wondering off with Ted towards his sailboat and were never seen again. Around this same time there was a grave yard of bones discovered in a Washingt on forest that would later be identified as some of the women that had went missing in the Washington and Utah areas. It was then that investigators from both areas were able to come up with a profile and a sketch of the man named Ted. (Montaldo)In August of 1975, Bundy was stopped for a driving violation, and when the officers searched his car they found a number of items such as, handcuffs, crowbar, and pantyhose with eye holes cut in them. He was then arrested on suspicion of burglary. Upon further examination of the things found in Bundy’s car the police realized that they matched items that one of the girls he attacked described seeing. This same girl identified the handcuffs as the ones that were fastened around one of her wrists and she picked him out of a line-up. Bundy then went to trial for the attempted kidnapping of Carol DaRonch in February of 1976 and was found guilty.For this case he was sentenced to 15 years in prison, and in October of 1976 he was charged wit h the murder of Carolyn Campbell. Bundy was extradited from Utah to Colorado for the trial. He would then be his own lawyer, which gave him a little freedom to move around the courtroom and the law library that was inside of the courthouse. In June of 1977 during his pre-trial hearing Bundy escaped by jumping out a window in the law library, only to be captured a week later. This would not be the end of Bundy’s escapes either. He did it again on December 30 and made it to Tallahassee, Florida.He got himself and apartment near the university using the name Chris Hagen. (Montaldo) He paid his way at a local college bars with stolen credit cards and when he got bored he would sneak into the lecture halls just to listen. On January 14 Ted Bundy would break into a Chi Omega sorority house and kill two women, and brutally raped one of them. He even beat two other women that managed to survive. The reason that they survived was because their fellow roommate came home. At around 3 a. m. Nita Neary came home and saw that the door was open, and as she entered the house she heard footsteps upstairs. Montaldo) She then went upstairs to find two of her roommates dead and the other two were severely beaten. Later that night another woman would be attacked, but the police would find a mask on her floor that would match the one found in Bundy’s car later. In February of 1978, Bundy kidnapped and mutilated a 12 year old girl named Kimberly Leach. Bundy was arrested again within a week of her disappearance for driving a stolen vehicle. Witnesses were able to place him at the dorm and at Leach’s school. There was also physical evidence that would link him with the murders.Among this evidence was a mold that was made from the bite marks found on one of the victims. Bundy went on trial in 1979 for the murders that happened at the sorority house and was found guilty. He received two sentences for death by electric chair. Then in January of 1980 he would go to t rial for the murder of Kimberly Leach. He actually had lawyers for this case and they tried going for an insanity plea. Bundy called Carol Boone as a character witness and even married her while she was on the witness stand. He called her as a witness because she believed in his innocence, and would later give birth to a little girl that Bundy adored.They were later divorced after she realized that he had actually done all the crimes he was accused of. Ted Bundy died on January 24, 1989 at 7:13 a. m. So why did all these people do what they did? Obviously that all had some reason for doing it and Ted Bundy said that his reason for doing it was because of all the pornography that he was subject to at such a young age. Other serial killers like Jeffrey Dahmer blamed it on being born with a part of him missing. John Wayne Gacy claimed that his victims deserved to die.One would have to think that they were insane for doing what they did, but most of them are rational and calculating pre dators. (Scott)I think that Denis Nilsen, the British version of Jeffrey Dhamer, put it best when he said, â€Å"a mind can be evil without being abnormal. † References Bibliography Harris, William R. Serial Killer Psychology. 2011. Web. 26 October 2012. . Intentional Homicide, number and rate per 100,000 population. 2012. Web. 26 October 2012. Kade, Asher. Murder Castle: The Maze-Like Lair of the World's First Serial Killer. 011. Web. 26 October 2012. ;http://www. environmentalgraffiti. com/bizarre/news-hh-holmes-inside-castle-first-true-serial-killer? image=1;. Montaldo, Charles. Serial Killer Ted Bundy. n. d. Web. 26 October 2012. ;http://crime. about. com/od/serial/p/tedbundy2. htm;. Ramsland, Kahterine. America's First Serial Killers. 2011. Web. 26 October 2012. . Scott, Shirley Lynn. What Makes Serial Killers Tick. n. d. Web. 26 October 2012. .

Of Morality and Spirituality Essay

The moral sacred Philippines started from a dream, and now that it continues to progress it can be one good evidence that as long as someone believes in an idea, it can be possible. As long as its aim is for the goodness of the citizens, it can be a reality. This concept does not want to create a world of perfection but rather a world of morality and spirituality. That world is where we can clearly distinguish the right ones from the bad. It is where we can not only think about ourselves but also the community, the government, and the nation. This dream can all be possible if we just go and believe that the land where we stand can be a better habitat of mankind. From Genesis 1:27, God created mankind in His own image. This verse proves that each of us is spiritual at heart. We just have to go and find the path through our hearts. We are created in His likeness which gives us the realization that all living things have something good in the inside. If we believe, make something to make this work, the moral sacred Philippines will make sense. A. WRITING AS A SOCIAL ACT The event connects with how writing can be a social act. In the said event, one does not only think about himself but also for the people around him. As for writing, a writer does not only write for him or for him to understand but also for his readers and audience. You write alone, but you always write for others. Readers matter. Once a writer sets his or her thoughts to any medium, whether paper, blog, status update, there is the potential for audience interaction. Ideas and creativity are created outside ourselves. Writers can never be more creative without the experiences and thoughts the people have. They continue to interact with people. Writing is a social act. Writers choose to see the beauty and brilliance of the world around them. Writing is nothing without the world and mind that surrounds them. B. WRITING AS A MORAL ACT Morality and spirituality is what the event focuses on. As for writing, writers do not only write everything that flows from their thinking, he must be careful. Something that anyone who writes words of any kind would do well to remember. Words have their moral consequences. The responsibility is particularly great for writers who deal with spiritual issues. Every word they write leaves its mark upon their soul and upon the souls of those who read their work. Their words may become sacraments, visible signs of an invisible grace, or they may turn to poison and ashes. It may signify the abyss or nothing at all. Writers must strive against mediocrity in one’s work, aiming always higher for lucidity of thought and beauty of expression with still being careful with the words they use. Every piece they make has an effect in this world. They are part of our moral conversation as a society. They weigh in. The creation of literature worthy not only its high artistic calling but of his stature as a creature created in the image and likeness of God.

Friday, August 30, 2019

Racism In America

Racism is everywhere in many different forms. I remember in 8th grade, I went to Walgreen to get some make-up products. As was just searching through the products kept see, a lady behind me. So I walked away and she kept following me, so decided to leave and as I was leaving she asked me if she could see my backpack. So I gave it to her, she thought I was stealing because I was black. And from that day on still realized that there was still racism in America. Even though racism was bad back then it is still very prevalent and one of the world's major issues.Many people are not aware of how much racism still exist in our schools, workforces, and anywhere else social lives are occurring. Between the years 1 450 though 1850 about 14 million African Americans were shipped to colonies in North America, South America and North Indies. About 90% Of these African Americans were kidnapped. And about 20-30% of them died on the route to these countries. These African American were know as inden tured servants, which were a form of debt bondage that occurred in the early years of American colonies. And in 1 628 they started to sell these African Americans like a piece of object.African men were sold for about $27 ND would serve as a slave for their entire life. Women and children would be sold for about $60. In the late 1660 the trans-Atlantic slave trade begins. And from the early 1 6th to the mid-19th century about 12 million to 13 million African Americans were taken away and sold. And in 1 787, slavery is made illegal by the Northwest Territory. A few years later in 1808 Congress bans the kidnapping of slaves in Africa. And the Missouri Compromise bans slavery north of the southern boundary of Missouri.During the slavery era which was from (1787-1863), many laws, acts, and amendments were created, some that helped slavery but many that banned it. In 1860 the Missouri Compromise was passed which prohibited the holding and ownerships Of slaves in the territory of the Unit ed States north Of the line. Also the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments were passed which abolished slavery, made all African Americans free, and lastly allowed African American man to vote. And then in 1964, this biggest law that helped segregation in America was the Civil Rights Act of 1964.This law abolished segregation in public accommodations, public facilities, and employment. This acts helped crease the amount of segregation and racism in America. Even though there is still racism in America today. Jumping to present day, racism is still very active today because of the media. As we grow up the media becomes part of our everyday life whether we like it or not. The media is a major part of how racism is still very active in today's society. Since the early days the media has given racial labels. For example, in crime shows such as â€Å"Law and Order†, and â€Å"CSS. When you think of crime, African Americans are the ones reflected as the bad guys. And the whites are oft en reflected at the â€Å"good guy'. The directors and writers use racial stereotypes to make a more interesting story with more suspects or people to target. Most types they target blacks because it's easy to point the finger at an easy target. America sees blacks as not capable or as important as whites. Racial discriminations is a big treat in workplace in America. Though is is not as noticeable as it was in the sass's it is still very prevalent today. Studies even show people of color are the last hired, and the first fired.Even though we have Affirmative action which is used for diversity in the workplace, so hat discrimination can not be apart of the work environment. But that's not really the case owners of companies can always find away around the system. If we look at the bigger picture, in many big companies you barely see people of color as the top guy like the CEO. You always see a white man in those positions. My mom once today me that one of her friends was applying f or a job and her name was really ghetto, so you could tell that she was black. So she applied and didn't get the job.A few months later she decided to apply for the job again, with a name that you could tell was white, and she ended p getting the job. Discrimination in the workplace is still very prevalent, and although the awareness of discrimination has been increasing, some companies still face this problem. Racism has been so rampant in schools, and is expressed in many different forms. Some of the forms of racism in schools include name-calling, teasing, verbal abuse, and even bullying. Racism is experienced by all kinds of people in school. Racism in schools has a big effect on individuals, and the learning environment.Racism in schools is enhanced by discriminatory policies and practices that exist in the school system. Some of these instances are ignoring incidents of racism, being bib in disciplinary acts against students based on their race. If we look at it most teachers are middle class white women, which can cause schools to be run by their values and beliefs of their classroom. Even today, I have noticed that most private schools are prominently white. Use to attend a private school when was in middle school, and I was the only black girl in class. And many times would get ignorant remarks from the students. Member one day, I was sitting down and this girl came up to me ND asked â€Å"do you live on trees and ride elephants†. I was taken aback. Even though there is still racism in schools we have come a long one since the first desegregated school in Alabama. The â€Å"Little Rock Nine† where one first African American students to attend an all white school. Racism and unequal treatment had always been prevalent in the criminal justice system. African Americans have always been under control of the whites. The most effective way for the whites to keep that control would be though the criminal justice system.For example, in â€Å"Ho w to Kill a Mockingbird† a African American boy named Tom Robinson is accused of raping a white girl named Male Lowell. In the end the verdict, Tom was found guilty of charged. Similarly, around 1 940 a little boy names Emmett Till was murdered in Mississippi by two white man for â€Å"flirting† with one of the man ‘s wife. After Till's body was found and the two white men, Were linked to Till's body they Went on trial. The two men Were acquitted Of Emmett Till's murder. This shows the power the criminal justice system has over African Americans. This is still prevalent today.In early 2012 Traction Martin was fatally shot and killed my George Zimmerman. And in July 201 3 Silverman was found not guilty of all the charges against him. After this America was stunned many were upset and sadden. This shows that racism is very much in the criminal justice system. Lastly, racism is not only toward African Americans. Many races has experienced some type of racism. On Sept ember 1 1, 2001 four planes were hijacked by terrorist. And after that day many Middle Easterners experienced racism especially in airports. Many airports where strict on who that allowed in and out of the Lignite States.Anyone who looked Middle Eastern was examined even more than anyone else. Also on December 7. 1941 the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor. Thus making the Unites States skeptical of every Japanese American. So they gathered all the Japanese people and put them in concentration camp. This act of racism toward Japanese was very viscous and made them feel like they didn't belong. In the end, they say you shouldn't judge a book by it's cover, yet everyday single day someone is being judged based on their skin color. Even though racism is bad, it is still being practiced in schools, workplaces, media, and the rimming justice system. Racism in America Robert Kim May 2011 Sociological Imagination Racism in America Is America in a Post Racial Era? What sort of impact does racism have in our society? In America, it's quite well known that we finally have the first black president in, it is also generally agreed upon that racism is unacceptable in society, and most of us would consider ourselves equal to one another regardless of race. Obviously, we still have people who are racist and the idea that these people will go away completely is almost unbelievable.Racism is the belief that races have distinctive cultural characteristics determined by hereditary factors and that this endows some races with an intrinsic superiority over others. And it can also mean abusive or aggressive behavior towards members of another race on the basis of such a belief. Racism means that people have negative and condescending thoughts about others based on their race. Some of the most infamous acts of racism in the United States occurred in the 1800s and 1900s which involved the discrimination against Indians and African Americans.In the 1800s, Americans believed that the Native Americans should be removed off their land or forced to assimilate into American society. The many Native Americans who chose not to assimilate were forced off their land into â€Å"reserves† so they would remain separate from society. â€Å"The concept became policy in 1825, with the creation of an Indian Country between the Red and Missouri Rivers†¦ followed by the Removal Act of 1830, leading to the relocation of many eastern tribes.Continuing non-Indian expansion, however, caused the so-called â€Å"permanent† Indian Territory to dwindle in size† (Waldman, Carl). The removal act attempted to remove Indians off their land and segregate them from each other and then, â€Å"The difference was that instead of one large Indian Country, lands were divided up piecemeal, with tribes confined to separate parcels with specific boundaries † (Waldman, Carl). And because of these acts, American Indians started to fight back for their land and their rights, which led to several American Indian wars.Eventually, American Indians were pushed so far away from society that they appear today as almost non-existent. It's very rare nowadays to meet a legitimate Native American because of these acts of discrimination against their race. The other well known historical event involved the African Americans in America who were discriminated against harshly, considered as property, and used primarily as slaves. Slavery was based on racist beliefs and thoughts that African Americans were inferior to white Americans. The three-fifths clause is the most infamous part of the Constitution in so far as black Americans are concerned. This is because it formalizes racism and white supremacy in the document, reflecting the debased, dehumanized status of African peoples in the minds of the Constitution's framers† (Smith, Robert). This act was used for political reasons in order to account for how many African people are living in the United States so that they could be taxed and represented in congress.This just shows that even the government believed that racism was acceptable and they were barely considered people. Southern states believed that these slaves were considered property and didn’t want to include them as part of the population, but for political purposes, congress wanted to add them into the count in population for political power. Racism has probably impacted African Americans the most because of how much they had to suffer during the time of slavery. Even still today, African Americans suffer from some forms of racism.After African Americans were freed from slavery and considered as â€Å"equal† citizens, no one would accept them as equal and they were still being discriminated against. African Americans were still being mistreated, terrorized against, and unable to participate in the same schooling or education as white Americans. African Americans weren’t considered equal and because of racism, people still thought of them as inferior and unequal just because they believed that they were born and meant to be servants.Even the government refused to accept African Americans as equals and the government created laws to restrict the rights of African Americans so that they wouldn’t be able to interact in society equally. After segregation had finally ended, African Americans were considered equal in society and are able to live without as much discrimination against them. We are not yet in a Post Racial Era because racism and race are still playing a role in our judgment and categorization of how we interact with other people.Barrack Obama is the first and only African American President to sit in office, even with America accepting and voting in the first non-white President, there are still many issues with racism in the United States. We are not in a Post Racial Era because people still have hatred against other people solely based on race and although they may not be able to express their ideas publicly, it still exists in people’s minds and their actions may even reflect those thoughts. Bibliography Smith, Robert C. â€Å"three-fifths clause in the U. S. Constitution. Encyclopedia of African-American Politics. New York: Facts On File, Inc. , 2003. African-American History Online. Facts on File, Inc. http://www. fofweb. com/activelink2. asp ItemID=WE01&iPin=EAAP0399&SingleRecord=True  (accessed April  25,  2011). Waldman, Carl. â€Å"U. S. Indian policy: Removal and reservations. † Atlas of the North American Indian, Third Edition. New York: Facts On File, Inc. , 2009. American Indian History Online. Facts On File, Inc. http://www. fofweb. com/activelink2. asp ItemID=WE43&iPin=ind5509&SingleRecord=True  (accessed April  25,  2011). Racism In America Racism is everywhere in many different forms. I remember in 8th grade, I went to Walgreen to get some make-up products. As was just searching through the products kept see, a lady behind me. So I walked away and she kept following me, so decided to leave and as I was leaving she asked me if she could see my backpack. So I gave it to her, she thought I was stealing because I was black. And from that day on still realized that there was still racism in America. Even though racism was bad back then it is still very prevalent and one of the world's major issues.Many people are not aware of how much racism still exist in our schools, workforces, and anywhere else social lives are occurring. Between the years 1 450 though 1850 about 14 million African Americans were shipped to colonies in North America, South America and North Indies. About 90% Of these African Americans were kidnapped. And about 20-30% of them died on the route to these countries. These African American were know as inden tured servants, which were a form of debt bondage that occurred in the early years of American colonies. And in 1 628 they started to sell these African Americans like a piece of object.African men were sold for about $27 ND would serve as a slave for their entire life. Women and children would be sold for about $60. In the late 1660 the trans-Atlantic slave trade begins. And from the early 1 6th to the mid-19th century about 12 million to 13 million African Americans were taken away and sold. And in 1 787, slavery is made illegal by the Northwest Territory. A few years later in 1808 Congress bans the kidnapping of slaves in Africa. And the Missouri Compromise bans slavery north of the southern boundary of Missouri.During the slavery era which was from (1787-1863), many laws, acts, and amendments were created, some that helped slavery but many that banned it. In 1860 the Missouri Compromise was passed which prohibited the holding and ownerships Of slaves in the territory of the Unit ed States north Of the line. Also the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments were passed which abolished slavery, made all African Americans free, and lastly allowed African American man to vote. And then in 1964, this biggest law that helped segregation in America was the Civil Rights Act of 1964.This law abolished segregation in public accommodations, public facilities, and employment. This acts helped crease the amount of segregation and racism in America. Even though there is still racism in America today. Jumping to present day, racism is still very active today because of the media. As we grow up the media becomes part of our everyday life whether we like it or not. The media is a major part of how racism is still very active in today's society. Since the early days the media has given racial labels. For example, in crime shows such as â€Å"Law and Order†, and â€Å"CSS. When you think of crime, African Americans are the ones reflected as the bad guys. And the whites are oft en reflected at the â€Å"good guy'. The directors and writers use racial stereotypes to make a more interesting story with more suspects or people to target. Most types they target blacks because it's easy to point the finger at an easy target. America sees blacks as not capable or as important as whites. Racial discriminations is a big treat in workplace in America. Though is is not as noticeable as it was in the sass's it is still very prevalent today. Studies even show people of color are the last hired, and the first fired.Even though we have Affirmative action which is used for diversity in the workplace, so hat discrimination can not be apart of the work environment. But that's not really the case owners of companies can always find away around the system. If we look at the bigger picture, in many big companies you barely see people of color as the top guy like the CEO. You always see a white man in those positions. My mom once today me that one of her friends was applying f or a job and her name was really ghetto, so you could tell that she was black. So she applied and didn't get the job.A few months later she decided to apply for the job again, with a name that you could tell was white, and she ended p getting the job. Discrimination in the workplace is still very prevalent, and although the awareness of discrimination has been increasing, some companies still face this problem. Racism has been so rampant in schools, and is expressed in many different forms. Some of the forms of racism in schools include name-calling, teasing, verbal abuse, and even bullying. Racism is experienced by all kinds of people in school. Racism in schools has a big effect on individuals, and the learning environment.Racism in schools is enhanced by discriminatory policies and practices that exist in the school system. Some of these instances are ignoring incidents of racism, being bib in disciplinary acts against students based on their race. If we look at it most teachers are middle class white women, which can cause schools to be run by their values and beliefs of their classroom. Even today, I have noticed that most private schools are prominently white. Use to attend a private school when was in middle school, and I was the only black girl in class. And many times would get ignorant remarks from the students. Member one day, I was sitting down and this girl came up to me ND asked â€Å"do you live on trees and ride elephants†. I was taken aback. Even though there is still racism in schools we have come a long one since the first desegregated school in Alabama. The â€Å"Little Rock Nine† where one first African American students to attend an all white school. Racism and unequal treatment had always been prevalent in the criminal justice system. African Americans have always been under control of the whites. The most effective way for the whites to keep that control would be though the criminal justice system.For example, in â€Å"Ho w to Kill a Mockingbird† a African American boy named Tom Robinson is accused of raping a white girl named Male Lowell. In the end the verdict, Tom was found guilty of charged. Similarly, around 1 940 a little boy names Emmett Till was murdered in Mississippi by two white man for â€Å"flirting† with one of the man ‘s wife. After Till's body was found and the two white men, Were linked to Till's body they Went on trial. The two men Were acquitted Of Emmett Till's murder. This shows the power the criminal justice system has over African Americans. This is still prevalent today.In early 2012 Traction Martin was fatally shot and killed my George Zimmerman. And in July 201 3 Silverman was found not guilty of all the charges against him. After this America was stunned many were upset and sadden. This shows that racism is very much in the criminal justice system. Lastly, racism is not only toward African Americans. Many races has experienced some type of racism. On Sept ember 1 1, 2001 four planes were hijacked by terrorist. And after that day many Middle Easterners experienced racism especially in airports. Many airports where strict on who that allowed in and out of the Lignite States.Anyone who looked Middle Eastern was examined even more than anyone else. Also on December 7. 1941 the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor. Thus making the Unites States skeptical of every Japanese American. So they gathered all the Japanese people and put them in concentration camp. This act of racism toward Japanese was very viscous and made them feel like they didn't belong. In the end, they say you shouldn't judge a book by it's cover, yet everyday single day someone is being judged based on their skin color. Even though racism is bad, it is still being practiced in schools, workplaces, media, and the rimming justice system.

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Statement of Purpose for graduate school ->Taxation Program Essay

Statement of Purpose for graduate school ->Taxation Program - Essay Example I soon realized I was passionate about handling complex financial matters and processing results, which I took to mean that I was not going to be satisfied with routine and directed procedures. My senior colleagues at the CPA office encouraged my ambitions, which only added to my feeling that I was ready for graduate studies. My love for matters finance begun when I was in high school, where we had an enthusiastic and encouraging teacher who would let us listen to budgetary proceedings, and once arranged a visit to the Treasury Department. She also ensured that we carried out as many practical roles as we could, while also encouraging us to read. I especially remember the impact of reading the Wall Street Journal each week and feeling that taxation was the most important aspect of American financial markets. My interests became more focused at undergraduate level, where, although management and accounting, which was my major, were easy to understand for me, I found that taxation was what really held my interest. I was fortunate enough to get an internship at the CPA Office, which turned into some of the best experiences of my life yet. I met a lot of people while working there and feel that I have a good advantage having worked there. It was during my internship that I finally decided that I wanted to be come a tax Consultant in the future. Although I felt that I could hold my own while working as an intern, I was cognizant of the fact that my base knowledge in taxation only consisted of my TAX3300 course. Therefore, I came to the conclusion that I needed to focus my studies in taxation, taking my IRS EA exam that I passed in the individual section. After receiving more encouragement from a CPA friend of mine, I also aim to pass my Representation and Corporation sections this year. My friend also recommended that I apply to Golden

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Choose one of them i will upload after paid Essay

Choose one of them i will upload after paid - Essay Example This form of writing provides a deep analysis of Purchasing Power Parity and highlights some of the PPP’s significance in the economy. PPP theory is used in various situations including adjustments for the price differences between countries and provides the solution of comparing countries with dissimilar wellbeing standards as well as setting exchange rate for new countries. By comparing the value of output from different countries and considering exchange rate for ease of data comparison, a lot of information between countries can be obtained (Yavuz 2013, p. 118-121). PPP may make it easy to determine numerous things such as the speed at which the global economy grows and further determine a country, whose average persons are better off. Purchasing Power Parity exchange rate is one of the numerous techniques that can be used to convert different country’s statistics into a common currency (Carvalho & Nechio 2011, pp. 2412-2423). It is worth noting that the PPP exchang e rate must not be similar with the one that prevails in the financial markets as it may either be more or less. Nevertheless, comparison of prices between different countries considers several products and services, which is a very complex task due to the massive amount of data, and the sophistications encountered in the process. In facilitating the price comparison process, always an International Comparisons Program (ICP) generates PPPs founded on global survey of prices where every participating country provides national average prices for several products. PPP is deemed a better measure of the overall wellbeing and its exchange rates are always fairly stable over time. Unfortunately, PPP is not easy to determine compared to other approaches such as the market based rates since ICP is a huge statistical undertaking and there are challenges of methodological involved such as estimation of the PPP rates that may lead to inaccuracies. Additionally, another challenge of using the PP P approach is that there are products that are never available in some countries thus limiting their utilization in comparison purposes. According to Adhikari, Guru-Gharana & Flanagan (2011, p. 4-8) because these countries share almost same economic trend of consumption normally experience better PPP exchange rates compared to countries that do not have similar economic characteristics. On the other hands, most of the developing countries particularly in Africa and Asia may make it difficult to obtain an adjusted exchange rate for PPP because they do not have well-kept economic records deemed important in determining the PPP exchange rates (Taylor 2009, 19-24). Although it may be presumed that, the nominal exchange rate and PPP may be comparatively similar there is always, an evident of a marked difference in the PPP’s accustomed exchange rates. It is significant to note that the PPP figures are normally grounded on the law of one price that indicates that products and servic es cost similar amounts everywhere such as the price of Big Mac in UK and France are similar. This assumption is vital in comparing the two products directly in

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

RP Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

RP - Essay Example The positivists view of realist exhausts in empirical structure in order to understand the ontology of economic regulaties (Lopez, J. 2001) 11 Marxism differentiates between an intransitive reality, which may exists independently of human knowledge, and the socially produced world of science and empirical knowledge. Bhaskar’s influence is also acknowledged in the ontology in the philosophy of social science (Sayer,A., 1992) 11 Critical realist philosophy has increasingly encouraged the influence of international realtions. The ontology is also credited to Bhaskar (1998). The private sector in Omani is affected by both politics and international realtions. 11 Most organisations know what good strategy and leadership development are and that good management makes a real difference to organisational performance. There is strong evidence to support this contention: historically, the greatest business leaders have driven economic prosperity and growth (BIS, 2012). The BIS findings are further confirmation of the opinion held by Mabey and Ramirez (2004), wherein they analysed that leadership and management development (LMD) leads to superior performance across companies of all sizes, sectors and national location. Managers as well as leaders at all levels, and not just those at the top, need a common set of skills associated with their management and leadership role, and these need to be developed. Just assuming that well qualified or professional people will be able to assume the management role on promotion does not necessarily help them become effective (Wolff, 2008). Some approaches to LMD are concerned predominantly with organisational strategies while other models strongly emphasize individual aims. There is a range of opinion between these two views, from those who argue that ‘organisational’ strategy may be imposed by leaders on the less powerful

Monday, August 26, 2019

Historical Figures and their impact on American History Essay

Historical Figures and their impact on American History - Essay Example James Madison: In Focus Being the fourth President of the United States, James Madison has had made his signature over the focal pages of the country’s voluminous biography which unravels into the present day. Moreover, James Madison was said to be the beginning of the exceptional constitutional government of America, which until now, can be felt (Rives 2). As a background, the hero of this story came from Orange County but was born in Port Conway, Virginia on a faithful Wednesday on the 16th of March, 1751. James Madison Sr. was in possession of a substantially organized tobacco plant in their hometown. For a boy who grew up on the state of Virginia, it was only orderly to inherit their father’s labor in the plantations. However, James exhibited great potential even in his youth with a fondness for reading and learning and so they made certain to give their child the proper education (Mattern 13). Then the College of New Jersey, Madison received his schooling from Prin ceton but did so in an impressive and condensed time frame. People of great importance over the nation had already caught a glimpse of the strength that Madison wielded through his contemplation and his statements the same emanation of intellectual competence that his parents saw. He was appointed to form the Virginia Declaration of Rights and took part in the Governor’s Council, Continental Congress as well as the Virginia State Legislature (Vile 7 ). These were the significant moments and occurrences on the life of James Madison that were molding him into the wise engineer of the United States. Probing more of James Madison’s earlier stories would reveal the effects of an upbringing in such a firmly intertwined structure of family and relatives. Even while already on service for the Continental Congress, he could not stay away from his home in Orange County. The place in which he took his first breath into the world would also be the last place he closed his eyes at his age of 85 on June 28, 1836. This special association with his relatives had an effect on his political life as well, as the Madison family was known to have ties with the sheriffs, country lieutenants, justices of the peace and members of the legislature in Virginia (Ketcham 6). Most of his life’s crucial works would be reared from his home state. Living at the period of the American Revolution, he was a pivotal force for its success. His duty was not in the line of battle nor on establishing foreign connections and political negotiations. James Madison was after all a cerebral leader. He went on with his patriotic intentions and concentrated on in the determination of the right kind of government for his country (Mattern 6). After their declaration of independence from Great Britain on the year of 1776, James Madison’s role persisted in creating a better government and in effect, rebuilding a better nation. James Madison had numerous, key contributions for the nat ions. One of the very first is his work of the Virginia report during the year of 1787 which would later be the blueprint for a work with much immensity in a substantial degree of significance--United States Constitution (Kernell 147). Along with Alexander Hamilton and John Jay, James Madison wrote â€Å"The Federalist Papers† from 1787 to 1788 in the hopes of the people of United States to embrace their work. The

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Training in Crisis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Training in Crisis - Essay Example One of his demands is for immunity from the murder charge if he surrenders without harming any of the people in the house. His other demands are a case of beer and some fast food soon. He wants his demands met or "something will happen". Any occasion or incident where any person is said to be taken against his or her will for an exchange of demand or performance of an action is called hostage taking. The incident involving the man and his family held up inside their house and where he demanded for immunity from the murder, case of beer and fast food is an example of hostage taking. There are categories of hostage-takers. Hostage-takers can be classified as those of political activists, mentally stable, criminal deviants and inmates (â€Å"Initial Response to a Hostage Situation†, n.d.). According to the Initial Response to a Hostage Situation (n.d.), the following are the hostage-taker categories: Political activists or terrorists are characterized as those very aggressive, im pulsive, and devoted to their causes and often demand release of political prisoner, money or even publicity. Criminal deviants are those which are likely rational but caught in criminal act and for them to be released, use hostages as way of safely escaping. Mentally unstable are hostage-takers suffering from strange psychiatric condition which are often suicidal and use hostage taking situation as means of death. The man in the scenario is considered to be a criminal deviant. The act was caused by the murder done to his neighbour and the situation is used as a means to demand for a safe escape. He threatened to kill those people with him if his demands are not given. There are may be different types of structures of law enforcement team but in general, the structure is composed of the team leader, on-scene commander, negotiator, intelligence officer, communication officer, tactical team and police psychologist. As part of the team as police psychologist, there are generally two ma in roles: (1) participation in team development, training, and selection of personnel; and (2) operational assistance during the crisis itself, including monitoring of negotiation progress, psychological profiling of hostages and HTs, assessment of danger and risk level, monitoring the mental status of negotiators and other personnel at the scene, and participating in both operational and critical incident stress debriefings following the incident . (Miller, 2007) . According to Dr. Miller, â€Å"the highest fatality rate in hostage crises occurs during tactical incursion, the decision to order such an action is an excruciatingly difficult one.† This is when a police psychologist becomes an integral part of the team as the tactical team. Police psychologists are very important in the crisis negotiation because they are necessary in preparing the team of people responsible in dealing with a situation such as hostage taking when lives are at stake. The police psychologist must be able to make sure that the team to deal in the situation is prepared, well trained and is ready to negotiate and save lives. They are also important in analyzing the situation and the profile of the perpetrator and the team and this will really help in making sure that the protocols are being applied and modified according to each situation. Dr. Miller (2007) stated that â€Å"containment and negotiation strategies yield a 95 percent success rate in terms of resolving a hostage crisis without fatalities to either hostages or hostage-takers (HTs),

Saturday, August 24, 2019

What do you understand by the term racism Using examples from one of Essay - 1

What do you understand by the term racism Using examples from one of the areas of policy we have covered, explain the existence of racism in contemporary Brit - Essay Example Upon making contact with the natives of these lands, the Westerners had the idea of dominating and subjugating the populace of these lands for providing them cheap labour etc to get benefited from the already existing bountiful resource base. The Renaissance had of course given a fillip to dynamism of ideas in Europe but these ideas were meant only to elevate the immediate environment and such enlightenment was not required for experimentation in the lands which were later to be colonized. It was a deliberate policy devised at the highest levels and its implementation was ensured to keep the status-quo in favour of the would-be colonizers intact. This probably must explain the background in respect of all that we associate racism currently with. And wherever the European colonizers went, they had neither any compulsion to neither extend respect to the way of life under their territories nor incorporate whatever wisdom these lands had to offer in return. Earlier, similar enterprises by powers other than those of Europe and the West also exhibited the same pattern (1). Arabs also under the zeal of their religion became colonial powers and controlled far more territories permitted by their strength in their time. In so far as a comparison is sought to be drawn between Arabs and the West, the former did understand their people and themselves changed in a way that suited their political and social correctness. The Westerns did not learn the same from Arabs despite their same religious and civilizational origins in the Semitic nature of their religion and culture. Racism is generally nourished as a sort of belief that the races have distinctive cultural characteristics determined by hereditary factors and that endows some races with an intrinsic superiority. This belief accordingly involves abuse and aggressive behaviour towards members of another race. Social scientists are of the opinion that ethnic groups have or do create a sense of grouping

Friday, August 23, 2019

Consulting in Organizations... for In and Out Advertising Essay

Consulting in Organizations... for In and Out Advertising - Essay Example The today's business world is changing in a very fast rate. The market expansion, advancement in technology, mergers and acquisitions, need for business restriction, financial constriction and government's legislation are calling for charges in business so that they can keep page with the new dynamic world. To find markets for their products organization's needs to advertise so as to create awareness of the products availability to the general customers, advertisement can be done locally, regionally, nationally and internationally depending on the type of products to be advertised. The report carries different theories that are appropriated for effective advertising in an organization. The theories covered under this report include, PESTEL, SWOT analysis, the Senge's five learning disciplines and porter's five forces. Political factor/ environment will include the tax policies by the government, government's business regulation; imposed trade tariffs and restrictions among others. Any business organization is supposed to known the tax policies affecting various regions this will help them in estimating the advertising costs in every region this evaluating its importance. The business organization is also supposed to know the government's business regulation so as to know the type of products to deal with and how to ... The business organization is also supposed to know the government's business regulation so as to know the type of products to deal with and how to advertise for the same, they also ought to know imposed tariffs and restrictions which will provide important guide on the regions on which advertisement can be done. The organization can apply the political dogma which is a set of philosophy, ethics and supposition within a given society. The political factor emerges as the most tumultuous in all the environmental forces. Any business organization needs to equip itself with the knowledge on the prevailing political climate whether locally, internationally, nationally and regionally. The political climate plays a great role in determining and evaluating the likelihood of business failure or business success. If the political climate is unstable then it will affect product's marketability affecting negatively on the total sales volume. In such a scenario it is not advisable for firms to extend their advertisement on such regions experiencing political instability. Such advertising efforts may not yield anything for the company translating into huge loses in terms of advertising in a region / nation that is politically stable will yield more success to the company a thing that enhances advertising. (Ansoff, 1965) The business organization needs to know how the economic factor affects its business enterprise, for example, if the business is being operated under a small economy then it means that greater efforts need to be applied on advertising so as to increase the sales volume. This can be extended up to the international level so as to

International Studies Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

International Studies - Essay Example The aforementioned was accomplished through various practices such as increase in cultivated areas, land productivity, and input per capita labor. Agriculture was the main economic activity in the region with Chinese people adopting the use traditional fertilizers, variety of crops, irrigation, and multiple cropping in order to increase production. Heavy yields experienced in these farms had an imperative role in the country’s GDP. Some of the popular crops grown in the region included maize, potatoes, peanuts, tobacco, and sugar cane among others (Das, 2006). Apart from farming, many Chinese households practiced other labor-intensive economic practices such as raising fish ponds, and utilization of grass and biomass to produce fuel. Therefore, rural households mainly focused on industrial activities while activities such as weaving, making garments, and textile spinning formed part of household activities. According to research, over a quarter of China’s GDP was derived from trade, construction, transport, traditional handicrafts, and housing. On the other hand, mass production of cash crops such as sugar, tobacco, tea, and cotton had a significant effect on the rise of China’s GDP. Therefore, the increase in China’s GDP exhibited before 1820 was attributed to agricultural activities within the region that resulted into creation of employment, increase in income and wealth, and economic growth (Angus, 2007). On the other hand, some research studies associate the increase in GDP with the documentation and planned Chinese technology on Chinese science and civilization on Needham’s magnum opus. However, the aforementioned ideology does not analyze the economic effect of invention and agricultural development. One of the major contributors in the improvement of Chinese GDP was increased land productivity that resulted into advanced living standards as income and wealth increased, proportionally. The

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Critical theory and professionalism Essay Example for Free

Critical theory and professionalism Essay In what ways can critical theory shed light on professionalism? This presentation explores how critical theory can provide a perspective for critiquing professionalism in education. In so doing the nature of the relationship between the professionalisation and social movement trends in education is addressed. An attempt at a definition of professionalism is going to be the focus of the first part of the presentation. Several concepts articulated within critical theory are discussed for their relevance to the issue of professionalism. The work of the Frankfurt School is underlined, drawing parallels to the work of Gramsci and Freire. In the final analysis, specific issues and questions raised by the perspective of Critical Theory are reflected upon as they apply to the professionalisation of education. The concept of professionalism Literature on professionalism is in its abundance. There have been many attempts at providing a clear definition, including the government-led agendas calling for higher degrees on professionalism in education. It can be noted at the outset that attempts at coming up with a definition of professionalism in education have struggled to agree on a particular one. Freidson (1994) has concluded that the use of the term professionalism is inconsistent. He argues that professionalism is ‘The Third Logic’, claiming that professions are occupational groupings that exercise relatively high degrees of control over the conditions as well as how they carry out their work. This kind of arrangement provides a mechanism for organising some aspects of social life in a way that properly deploys specialist knowledge. Professionalism is therefore viewed as a mode of social coordination and competes with, and provides some insulation from, both market and bureaucratic forms of organisation. It has also been viewed as â€Å"a state of mind† or ideology that reflects a way of thinking about the cognitive aspects of a profession and the characteristics that typify a professional (Van Ruler, 2005). In other words, in the case of teaching, professionalism is the cultural means by which we give meaning, purpose, definition, and direction to work as professionals and the place of practitioners in society. It can therefore be claimed that there is no universal agreement of the concept. It has been implored by some authorities for teaching to become evidence-based profession like medicine and law. Hargreaves, for example describes teaching as the â€Å"paradoxical profession†. He asserts that of all the jobs that are, or aspires to be professions, only teaching is expected to create the human skills and capacities that will enable individuals and organizations to survive and succeed. (Hargreaves, 2003). Carr (1992) has suggested that in this ‘extended’ view of educational professionalism, education and teaching are to be understood by reference to the elaborative network of public duties, obligations and responsibilities in which teaching as a social role is implicated. It can be asserted that if teaching is a profession, there has been an assumption that teachers should be equipped with capacities for autonomous judgement and the freedom to exercise this judgement. It could be considered inappropriate for politicians or employers to dictate to teachers what is or is not worthy of inclusion in the school curriculum, or what kinds of knowledge and skill are crucial for the professional conduct of teaching. It is with this view in mind that Flinders (1980) has argued that teaching is an open-ended activity. Helsby (1995) claims that professionalism is subject to geographical and cultural differences and it can be understood as relating to exceptional standards of behaviour, dedication as well as a strong service ethic. This view is supported by Bryan (2003) who argues that professional work can be seen to be increasingly influenced by politics. This can be justified by the claim that the policies of governments are ideologically driven, hence professionalism may be understood as constructs which develop in response to ideological influences. Thomas (2012) uses professionalism as a descriptor of a combination of teachers’ specific capabilities and knowledge, the purpose and ethical underpinnings of their work, the extent to which they are able to exercise independent and critical judgement, their role in shaping and leading changes in their field, and their relationship to other stakeholders. Despite the vicissitude of the notion of professionalism in education, standard analyses of how this concept can be applied in public services such as teaching and nursing have stressed the importance of specialist knowledge  and expertise, ethical codes as well as procedures concerned with training, induction and continuing professional development (Flexner, 1915; Larson, 1977; Langford, 1978; Eraut, 1994). Attached to this view of professionalism is the assumption that in exchange for a greater say in matters related to school and teaching, teachers are expected to submit to greater levels of scrutiny and work roles that go beyond classroom teaching (Stone-Johnson, 2013). In this exchange there is a shift of power whereby as the work of the teachers becomes increasingly professionalised, teachers appear to have surrendered degrees of professionalism. The critical project in education supervenes from the postulation that pedagogical practices are linked to social practices, and that it is the task of the critical intellectual to identify and address injustices in these practices. The Frankfurt School’s perception of Critical Theory was driven by an underlying commitment to the notion that theory as well as practice must inform the work of those who seek to transform the oppressive conditions that exist in the world. Their ideas influenced other great critical theorists such as Freire and Gramsci. If the notion of critical theory is to be linked to the debate on professionalism, it can be argued that the development of critical pedagogy out of critical theory has changed the way through which the role of the teacher is seen, particularly the professional position of the teacher in the society. It has been argued that there has been a widespread erosion of professional autonomy in recent years (Barton et al, 1994, Whitty et al 1998). This has been a result of the centralisation of control over all aspects of teacher’s work such as curriculum (National Curriculum, literacy and numeracy hours), assessment, (SATs, QAA/ Ofsted Inspections) and conditions of service (imposed by the employers in a controlled quasi-market regulated by centralist funding formulae, league tables and inspection regimes.) (Freidson, 2001). This can be corroborated by a survey of teachers carried by Helsby and McCulloch (1997) as it showed that the government onslaught of edicts and initiatives demolished professionalism. It has been argued the formulation of policy documents have positioned the teacher as fundamentally impotent in terms of curriculum design. The teacher  has been reduced to a mere curriculum deliverer. This is mainly to system of communication that is viewed as one-sided by educational critiques. Murphy and Fleming (2010) have attempted to deal with this issue by using the Habermas’ notion of communicative action. They argue that, for Habermas, the essential feature of communicative action is that it aims at reaching agreement. Furthermore in order for that agreement to be not only mutually acceptable but satisfactory, its participants must be willing to make and defend validity claims such as claims of truth, rightness and truthfulness. Habermas’ notion accedes to the fact that while validity claims are raised automatically in everyday communication, it is only when communication aims primarily at reaching consensus, and when participants provide reasons for their argument, that rationality actually manifests itself. It can be argued that in the case of professionalism, Critical Theory is meant to herald a liberatory education that empowers stakeholders, fosters curiosity and critical thinking, and provides a means for crucial successful bottom-up, top-down engagement in the political arena. The introduction of a prescriptive and centralised National Curriculum has greatly weakened the professional confidence of teachers, (Helsby and McCulloch, 1997). It has also left them uncertain of their ability to cope and of their right to take major curriculum decisions. This has resulted in the government having more control over the teaching profession, (Meyer- Emerick, 2004). Critical theory prefers to call this process ‘one-dimensionality’ of life. Thus this extended the existing understanding of power and its impact on the construction of knowledge. Gramsci was deeply concerned with the manner in which domination was undergoing major shifts and changes within the industrial western societies. He developed a theory of hegemony, whereby he sought to explain the manner by which these changes were exercised more and more through the moral leaders of the society (including teachers) who participated in and reinforced universal ‘common sense’ notions of what is considered to be truth in society. This is consonant with Foucault’s questioning of what he termed ‘regimes of truth’ that were upheld and perpetuated through the manner in which particular knowledge was legitimated within the context of a variety of power relationships within the society. Foucault’s perceptions of power is not  solely at play in the context of domination, but also in the context of creative acts of resistance and these are produced as human beings are interact across the dynamic of relationship and shaped by moments of dominance and autonomy. Such a viewpoint challenges the dichotomised standpoint of either domination or powerlessness of power as enticed by radi cal education theorists. Thus it can be argued that Foucault’s writing on knowledge and power shed light on a critical understanding of the teaching profession in relation to authority. More so it does open the door to a better understanding of power relations within the context of teaching practice.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Metabolic pathways for Diclofenac

Metabolic pathways for Diclofenac Diclofenac (2-(2,6-dichlo ranilino)phenyl acetic acid) Diclofenac is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) widely used to reduce inflammation and pain in conditions which include, but not limited to ankylosing spondylitis, arthritis, osteoarthritis and acute pain. Diclofenac, a phenyl acetic derivative, is a lipophilic and weakly acidic compound made up of two twisted aromatic rings. Molecular structure: Diclofenac exerts its pharmacological activity by non-selectively inhibiting cyclooxygenase (COX), an enzyme responsible for the conversion of the polyunsaturated fatty acid, arachidonic acid, into prostaglandins, thromboxanes and prostacyclins (Schweitzer et al., 2009). Prostaglandins are involved in maintenance of organ systems such as protection of the stomach wall or for the kidney function. They are also mediators of pain and inflammation. The most commonly observed side effects of Diclofenac are gastrointestinal disturbances and these may include abdominal pain, constipation, flatulence, diarrhoea, dyspepsia, gross bleeding/perforation, heartburn, nausea, GI ulcers (gastric/duodenal) and vomiting. Other side effects that may occur include impaired renal function, anemia, dizziness, oedema, headaches, increased bleeding time and allergic reactions (pruritus, rashes and tinnitus). Metabolism of Diclofenac The metabolism of Diclofenac mainly takes place in the liver and involves two major pathways, oxidative metabolism and conjugation to glucuronic acid. Metabolic pathways for Diclofenac (Vickers, 2008) The oxidative metabolism (ring hydroxylation) of Diclofenac is catalysed by two enzymes of the cytochrome P450 family namely CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 (Boelsterli et al., 2007). This results in the formation of 4-hydroxydiclofenac and 5-hydroxydiclofenac as the major metabolites. A number of other mono- or dihydroxylated or methoxylated metabolites may also result. The 4-OH and the 5-OH metabolites of diclofenac can be further oxidized to a highly recative p-benzoquinone imine with great potential for redox cycling and hence oxidative stress. These metabolites are excreted from the body through the renal route. Diclofenac is also conjugated to activated glucuronic acid (Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid-UDPGA) in a reaction catalysed by UGT2B7 in humans and UGT2B1 in rats. This results in the formation of an acyl glucuronide which is a potentially reactive metabolite. The electrophilic carboxy carbon on the acyl glucuronide reacts with the sulfhydril group on proteins, forming covalent adducts. The acyl glucuronide can be further metabolized to 4_-OH-diclofenac acyl-glucuronide by CYP2C8, and subsequently to a benzoquinone imine which can pose oxidative stress to cells by redox cycling. The conjugation of Diclofenac to acyl glucuronide (Boelsterli et al., 2007) The acyl glucuronides are largely excreted from the body through the billiary system. The Diclofenac acyl glucuronide anions are transported from the hepatocytes into the biliary canaliculus by the canalicular anion transporter, multidrug resistace-associated protein (Mrp2). The enterohepatic circulation of Diclofenac metabolites (Boelsterli et al., 2007) During the transportation process, some of the most reactive metabolites will react to form covalent bonds with canalicular proteins and others in distal locations in the biliary tree. In the small intestines, a bacterial enzyme ß-glucuronidase, cleaves the acyl glucuronides to an aglycone which is readily reabsorbed. This phenomenon is referred to as enterohepatic cycling. ß-glucuronidase resistant iso-glucuronides are excreted. The overall exposure to Diclofenac and its metabolites is therefore increased. Diclofenac-induced toxicities The use of Diclofenac is often associated with certain toxicities, although some of them are not very common and therefore are not quite predictable. The major ones include gastrointestinal disturbances, hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Gastrointestinal disturbances (dyspepsia and ulceration) Diclofenac related gastrointestinal disturbances are thought to be related to its mechanism of action (Takeuchi et al., 2003). There are two important isoforms of the enzyme cyclooxygenase, COX-1 and COX-2. The inducible COX-2 is stimulated by tissue or cell injury to break down arachidonic acid to form prostaglandins involved in the regulation of pain and inflammation. The constitutive COX-1 is involved in the formation of prostaglandins and thromboxanes that take part in the normal tissue homeostasis and this include protection of the gastric mucosal lining from gastric acid. Upon inhibition of COX-1 by Diclofenac, the mucosal lining is left unprotected and disturbances may ensue. This may be related to the dose. Drugs with more selectivity towards the COX-2 isoform are safer in this regard. Hepatotoxicity The liver is highly susceptible to xenobiotic-induced toxic injuries because it is functionally interposed between the site of absorption and the systemic circulation, hence all drugs pass through the liver before reaching the systemic circulation. More so it is a major site of metabolism and elimination of foreign substances. Diclofenac is a generally safe drug within its therapeutic ranges, however its use can, in rare cases, result in severe hepatic injury (Boelsterli et al., 2003) Significant hepatotoxicity was also noted with the other pioneer NSAIDs and they were subsequently withdrawn from the market (Kaplowitz), for example benoxaprofen, piniprofen and fenclofenac to name but a few. Hepatoxicity is mainly characterised by jaundice, fatigue, anorexia nausea and vomiting. Liver toxicity is typical example of idiosyncratic drug toxicity because of liver injury is not a reproducible effect and lacks a simple dose-response relationship (Boelsterli et al. 2003). Mechanism of Diclofenac induced liver injury As with many xenoniotics, there is a casual link between the metabolism and binding of Diclofenac with its adverse effects and toxicities. The lipophilic nature of Diclofenac and its ability to form reactive metabolites (Diclofenac acyl glucuronides and the hydroxyl metabolites) are the features postulated to be associated with hepatotoxicity. Diclofenac is thought to induce liver damage through various mechanisms which may include acylation of hepatobiliary proteins, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and immune response. Acylation of hepatobiliary proteins (Boelsterli et al., 2007) Diclofenac acyl glucuronides have electrophilic centers that can covalently bind with some proteins in the biliary tree. Most of the target proteins have sulfhydril groups. The canalicular ectoenzyme, dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV) is an example of an important target protein for the acyl glucuronides. DPP IV is a multifunctional transmembrane glycoprotein and exopeptidase. DPP IV is more susceptible as a target protein for the acyl glucuronides because: It contains many sulfhydryl goups, making it a good target for the acyl glucuronides. DPP IV is located very close to the Mrp2, the pump responsible for the vectorial transport of the conjugates. The acyl glucoronides are highly concentrated in the canaliculus by the Mrp2 protein The slightly alkaline pH in bile favours hydrolysis of the acyl glucuronides, hence their possible reactions with target proteins. A possible link between covalent binding and toxicity was delineated in rats, where inhibition of Diclofenac metabolism using the general CYP inhibitors greatly reduced hepatotoxicity (Vickers, 2008). The mechanism of DPP IV covalent binding with Diclofenac acyl glucuronide(Boelsterli et al., 2007) Mitochondrial Dysfunction (Boelsterli et al., 2003) Mitochondrial dysfunction has long been implicated as a primary indicator of hepatotoxicity (Vickers, 2008). Diclofenac can act as a protonophoretic compound thereby uncoupling the electron transport chain. This dissipates the proton gradient required for ATP production. Diclofenac and its metabolites may also produce oxidative stress which may affect mitochondrial membrane permeabilization (increased permeability of mitochondria outer membrane and opening of the mPT) (Woen Ping Siu et al, 2008). The formation of diclofenac cation radicals and quinone imine associated redox cycling produces a lot of oxidative stress to cells leading to Diclofenac toxicity. When rats and human liver cells were treated with Diclofenac, an increase in the expression of hemeoxygenase 1 (Hmox1) was noted in line with changes in the redox state and induction of oxidative stress (Vickers, 2008). These events lead to the release of pro-apoptotic proteins and bursting of the outer membrane. Immune response Some clinical features noted in some patients provided the evidence that the immune-allergic reactions are involved in Diclofenac-induced liver injury (Boesterli et al 2003). These include allergy symptoms, presence of IgM antibody, and hypersensitivity reaction in an inadvertent rechallenge to Diclofenac. All these are pointing towards immune response as a possible mechanism for Diclofenac-induced hepatotoxicity, however the real mechanism is still elusive. Nephrotoxicity Diclofenac is increasingly being associated with renal toxicity. Diclofenac-induced renal toxicity in humans has been cited in literature (Lin et al. 2008). In veterinary medicine, marked decreases in population of certain vulture species were attributed to ingestion of carcases contaminated with Diclofenac residues (Swan et al., 2006, Naidoo et al. 2007, Lin et al. 2008, Naidoo et al., 2009). In all the cases, the vultures died due to renal failure. Most studies attributed this to high plasma uric acid levels and the production of ROS (Swan et al., 2006, Naidoo et al., 2007, Naidoo et al., 2009a, 2009b,). Diclofenac is said to inhibit the the p-amino-hippuric acid (PAH) channel and subsequently the transport of uric acid (Naidoo et al. 2009a). The resulting accumulation of uric acid in blood causes deleterious effects such as gout and increased intracellular ROS upon prolonged Diclofenac use (uric acid is an intracellular antioxidant). References A Schweitzer, N Hasler-Nguyen and J Zijlstra, 2009. Preferential uptake of the non steroid anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac into inflamed tissues after a single oral dose in rats. J. BioMed Central Pharmacol. 9:5 Alison E.M. Vickers, 2008. Tissue slices for the evaluation of metabolism-based toxicity with the example of Diclofenac. Chemico-Biological Interactions 179 (2009) 9-16) Boelsterli et al., 2003. Diclofenac-induced liver injury: a paradigm of idiosyncratic drug toxicity. Toxicol and Appl Pharmacol. ;192(3):307-322 Boelsterli et al., 2007 Mechanistic Toxicology. The molecular basis of how chemicals disrupt chemical targets K. Takeuchi, A. Tanaka, R. Ohno, A.Yokota, 2003. Role of COX inhibition in pathogenesis of NSAID-induced small intestinal damage. J Physiol Pharmacol. 54 Suppl 4:165-182 Lin Eng Ng, Barry Halliwell, Kim Ping Wong, 2008. Nephrotoxic cell death by diclofenac and meloxicam. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 369 (2008) 873-877 N Kaplowitz (Editor). Drug-Induced Liver Disease Naidoo V et al., 2007. Validating the domestic fowl as a model to investigate the pathophysiology of diclofenac in Gyps vultures. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology 24 (2007) 260-266 Swan E.G et al., 2006. Toxicity of diclofenac to Gyps vultures. Biology. Letters. (2006) 2, 279-282 V. Naidoo , G.E. Swan 2009a. Diclofenac toxicity in Gyps vulture is associated with decreased uric acid excretion and not renal portal vasoconstriction. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Part C 149 (2009) 269-274 V. Naidoo, K. Wolter, R. Cuthbert, N. Duncan, 2009b. Veterinary diclofenac threatens Africas endangered vulture species. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 53 (2009) 205-208 Woen Ping Siu et al, 2008. Bax-mediated mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP), distinct from the mitochondrial permeability transition, is a key mechanism in diclofenac-induced hepatocyte injury: Multiple protective roles of cyclosporin A. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. 15;227(3):451-561

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Purpose And Definition Of OEE Engineering Essay

Purpose And Definition Of OEE Engineering Essay 2.1 Introduction These days, in this demanding world, the total elimination of waste is for the survival of the organization. The waste caused due to the failure or shutdown of facilities that has been built with enormous investment, and also waste such as defective products ought to be completely eliminated. In a manufacturing sector, companys facilities have to be functioning efficiently in order to gain desirable productivity, inventory cost, delivery as well as quality. In this context, the motive of OEE analysis and measurement is to reduce the equipment losses to zero and has been recognized as a necessity for many organizations. According to Bamber et al. (1999) [5], the role of teamwork, small group activities and the participation of all employees is crucial to accomplish equipment improvement aims. Hence, OEE is use as metrics to determine the Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) activities. On the other hand, it can also be said that OEE shows a consistency approach to measure the effectiven ess of TPM as well as other programs by providing an overall structure for measuring production efficiency. As explained by (Dal et al., 2000) [6], the role of OEE goes far beyong not only monitoring and controlling, but also takes into consideration of process improvement initiatives/programs, provides a systematic method for establishing production targets, prevents the sub-optimization of individual machines or product lines, as well as incorporates practical management tools and techniques. This ensures the attainment of a balanced view of process availability, quality and performance. Another statement made by Lesshammar and Patrik (1999) [7], in their case studies, have presented how OEE is being used in industry and as well have reported that this metric forms a useful part of an overall system of measurement. In other words, it provides a useful method to measure the effectiveness of manufacturing operations from a single piece of equipment to the whole manufacturing plant of several manufacturing plants in a group. In doing so, OEE not only provides a complete scenario of where productive manufacturing time and money is being lost, but at the same time uncovers the true , hidden capability of the industry. Thus, it becomes the key manufacturing decision support tool for constant improvement programmes [8]. Apart from that, OEE is an established method of measuring followed by optimizing the efficiency of a machines performance or that of a whole industry plant. The effectiveness of a plants production highly depends on the effectiveness with which it makes use of equipment, materials, man and methods as explained by Suzuki (1999) [9]. Besides, OEE can have a significant impact on the productivity of a manufacturing unit. Therefore, through OEE manufacturers may systematically direct their business towards attainment of continuous improvement operating margins, optimized competitive position and maximized utilization of capital. Some of the more prominent firms have benefited from OEE as a measurement gauge for implementing improvement activities that increases company profits and costs. . 2.2 History of OEE OEE is an essential metric and basic methodology for manufacturers practicing a Lean manufacturing strategy that is zero waste in their value streams. This metric element follows the well-founded principle: If you cant measure it, you cant manage it [10]. Some advocates are fond of the view If youre not taking score, youre only practicing [10]. In 1972, the Japanese Plant Maintenance Institute (JPMI) developed a theory called Total Productive Maintenance [11]. The preliminary aim of TPM was to eradicate the six big losses and subsequently the eight wastes. It was first implemented and developed in Toyotas automotive plants, soon after evolving into world renowned Toyota Production System. An organizational culture was formed by Toyota that focused on the systematic identification and elimination of all waste from their production process where the technical / human contributions to production are maximized. Reengineering and organizational change is used to maximize yield, minimize cost and time-compress the supply chain by fully excluding non-value added activities and not right first time events. The OEE gauge came forward from the Japanese production focused, equipment management framework of TPM [10]. OEE is the key measure of the tangible benefits accessible from TPM by Seiichi Nakajima, the founder of Total Productive Maintenance who initially used OEE to depict a fundamental measure for tracking production performance. He (Seiichi Nakajima) challenged the complacent view of effectiveness by focusing not merely on keeping equipment running smoothly, but on creating a sense of joint responsibility between maintenance workers and operators to optimize the Overall Equipment Performance. OEE symbolized in the first of the original pillars of TPM. Guided all TPM activities and measured the results of these loss focused activities. Therefore, the use of OEE had evolved into the current focused improvement pillar, one of eight TPM pillars. During the mid 1990s, coordinated by SEMATECH the semiconductor wafer fabrication industry has adopted to improve the productivity of the fabrication [11]. Since then, manufacturers in other industries throughout the world have embraced OEE ways to improve their asset utilization. 2.3 The purpose of OEE The OEE metric can be applied at a number of different levels within a manufacturing environment. First, OEE can be used as a benchmark for measuring the initial performance of a manufacturing industry as a whole. Thereby, the initial OEE measure can be compared with future OEE values, hence quantifying the level of enhancement made. Subsequently, an OEE value calculated for one manufacturing line can as well be used to compare line performance across the industry, thus highlighting any poor line performance. If the machines processes work individually, an OEE measure can discover which machine performance is worst, and therefore indicate where to focus TPM resources ( Nakajima 1988) [5]. Dal et al. (2000) [6] declared that by utilizing largely existing performance data, such as preventive maintenance, absenteeism, accidents, material utilization, conformance to schedule, labor recovery, set-up and changeover data, etc., the OEE measure may possibly provide topical information for daily decision making. Due to this, the OEE measurement method within a industry becomes the elementary measure of TPM activities, as well as a basis of improvements for the TPM process. 2.4 Definition of OEE In the era of globalization today, manufacturers are forced to look for creative ways to maximize additional investment due to the continuous pressure of global competition which results in lower margin. In this state, OEE has becoming a hot topic. In its most basic form, OEE offers a straightforward ways to keep track of manufacturing performance as well as to measure the total equipment performance- the degree to which the asset is doing what it is supposed to do. However, the true power of OEE as a dedicated application lies in the ability to use it as a change-enabler, or tool for continuous improvement and lean manufacturing programs [8]. There are various methodologies to gauge manufacturing efficiency. Generally most companies will have a number of measures already in place. Nevertheless, many now disagree that none of these approaches are as comprehensive or far reaching as the OEE achievement, since OEE provides a way to measure the effectiveness of manufacturing operations from single piece of equipment to the manufacturing plant in entirety, or several manufacturing plants in a group. as a result, OEE can be well thought-out as a central KPI (key performance indicator). It drives an organization to examine all aspects of asset performance in order to ensure gaining the maximum benefits from a piece of equipment that is already bought and paid for [12]. Thus, it is obvious that OEE acts as an approach for monitoring and managing the lifecycle of manufacturing assets. On the other hand, OEE can be expressed as a commonly accepted set of metrics that bring clear focus to the key success drivers for manufacturing enterprises [13]. In other words, it measures both efficiency (doing things right) and effectiveness (doing the right things) with the equipments. These measurement comprises of three fundamental elements where each one is expressed as a percentage and accounting for a different kind of waste in the manufacturing process. Thus, it is understood that OEE is a function of the three factors. The three factors mentioned below are briefed as: Availability or uptime (downtime: planned and unplanned, tool change, tool service, job change etc.) A measure of the time the plant was in fact available for production compared to the manufacturing requirements. Any losses in this area would attribute to major breakdowns or extended set up time [14]. Performance efficiency (actual vs. design capacity) The rate that concrete units are produced compared to the designed output. Losses in this area would attribute to slow speed running, minor stoppages or adjustments [14]. Rate of quality output (Defects and rework) A measure of good quality, saleable product, minus any waste. Losses in this element would attribute to damage rejects or products needing rework [14]. Measuring OEE can be done simply by capturing the five basic pieces of information as stated below: Planned Production Time the planned amount of time in which production is planned for a specific line. Down Time specify as the amount of time the process is not running during the planned production time (interrupts to production). Ideal Cycle Time represent as the theoretical minimum of time needed to produce a single piece of product. Total Pieces denote as the total number of pieces produced during the planned production time. Good Pieces signify as the total number of pieces produced that meet quality standards. Figure 2.1 The Overall Equipment Effectiveness flow chart 2.5 Objectives of OEE Overall Equipment Effectiveness records and data informations are used to categorize a single asset (machine or equipment) and/or single stream process related losses in order to improve total asset reliability and performance. Besides, the information is useful and essential as it helps to identify and categorize major losses or reasons for poor performance. OEE offers the basis for setting enhancement priorities as well as for the root of measurement and analysis. In addition, the percentage determined is used to track and trend for improvement, or decline, in equipment effectiveness over a period of time. Hidden or untapped capacity in a manufacturing process can be pointed out through these percentages and lead to balance flow. On top of that, OEE can be used to develop and enhance collaboration between asset operations, maintenance, purchasing, and equipment engineering to jointly identify and reduce (or eliminate) the 2 major causes of poop performance since maintenance alone cannot improve OEE. 2.6 The use of OEE The root why companies uses OEE is to avoid making inappropriate purchases, and help them focus on improving the performance of machinery and also plant equipment they already own. Companies should also start with the area that will provide the greatest return on asset because OEE is able to find the greatest areas of improvement. These OEE formula with the major factors involves will show how improvements in quality, changeovers, machine reliability improvements, working through breaks and more. In business world today, when many manufacturers strive towards world class productivity in their facility, this simple method will perform an excellent benchmarking tool [15]. Besides, the simple derived OEE percentage makes a great motivational system as it is easy to understand and this single number is displayed where all facility personnel can view it. By giving employees such as operators and workers an easy way to see how they are doing in overall equipment utilization, production speed, and quality, in return they will strive for a higher number instead. 2.7 Defining Six Big Losses One of the major goals of TPM and OEE programs is to reduce and/or eliminate what are named as the Six Big Losses, the most common causes of efficiency loss in manufacturing sectors. This was put forwarded by Nakajima in 1989 [16]. There are basically 3 categories of OEE loss which include: Down Time Loss, Speed Loss and Quality Loss. Each of these types has been divided into two sub-losses. They are known or called the Six Big Losses. Basically, OEE is generally measured in terms of these six losses as showed below. They are categorized as stated below: Breakdown Losses Setup and Adjustments Losses Small Stops Losses (Idling and Minor Stop Losses) Reduced Speed Losses Startup Rejects (reduced yield losses) Production Rejects (quality defects and re-work) Categorizing these data makes addressing the Six Big Losses much easier, and a key goal should be fast and efficient data collection, with data put to used throughout the day in the real time. 2.2 Addressing the Six Big Losses Measurement is essential to establish appropriate metrics. It is important necessity of continuous improvement processes. As stated by Nakajima (1988), an efficient way of analyzing the efficiency of a single machine or an integrated manufacturing process is through OEE measurement [17]. It is a function of availability, performance rate, and quality rate. In fact, the three dimensions are measures in terms of equipment losses. Following this, Nakajima (1988) defined these losses into six major categories as follows [17]: 2.7.1.1 Availability Losses Based on the mechanism principle, a machine most likely is available 24/7/365. However, this comes from an ideal perspective, from which one can measure true machine availability. There are few genuine factors that affect on availability, some of which are planned, and some unplanned. For planned downtime, it takes into account of holidays, scheduled maintenance and vacation. While for unplanned downtime, it includes equipment failures and setup and adjustments. It is possible to factor in the planned downtime; however it is the losses due to unplanned downtime that can negatively affects machine availability. Breakdowns Breakdown Losses are classified as by far the biggest of the Six Big Losses. These losses are significant due to the fact of its sudden, dramatic failure in which the equipment stops completely [18]. In the view of the fact that there is no production therefore this unexpected breakdown are undoubtedly elements of losses. The breakdown can cause all equipment functions to be terminated even though the source lies in a single specific function. Nevertheless, deterioration related to problem and losses are also regard as break down losses. It is important to improve OEE by eliminating unplanned downtime. But if the process is down, other OEE factors cannot be dealt with. Therefore, it is not merely important to know how much downtime your process is experiencing (and when) at the same time to be able to attribute the lost time to the specific reason or cause for the loss [19]. Setup and Adjustments Whenever the production of one product stops and the equipment is adjusted to meet the requirements of another product, this is where setup and adjustment take place. The loss of time due to this delay is known as setup and adjustments Basically, setup and adjustments period of time is normally measured as the time between the last good parts produced before setup to the first consistent good parts produced after setup. In order to constantly produce parts that meet the quality standards, it should generally include substantial adjustment and/or warm-up time. Various innovative ways have been used by companies to reduce setup time. These comprises assembling changeover carts with all tools and supplies necessary for the changeover in one place, pinned or marked settings so that coarse adjustments are no longer necessary, and use of prefabricated setup measures [20]. 2.7.1.2 Performance Losses Machine performance referred to as the net production time during which products are produced. The more the machine produces, the greater the OEE metric. However, speed losses and small stops will inhibit the overall performance of machine. If such losses is not recognized and addressed, the machine performance cannot be fully optimized. Reduced Speed Reduced Speed can be classified as one of the most difficult of the Six Big Losses to monitor and record. This is due to the reason that there is a significant difference between the theoretical maximum speed and what people think the maximum speed is. In most cases, in order to prevent other losses such as quality rejects and breakdowns, the production speed needs to be optimized. Losses due to reduce speed are therefore, often ignored or underestimated [21]. It happens when the equipment runs slower than its optimal or maximum speed. Apart from that, reduced speed is the difference between designed speed and the actual operating speed [21]. There are various reasons where equipment may be running at less than its designed speed, for instance non-standard or difficult raw materials, history or past problems, mechanical problems, or fear of overloading the equipment. This loss of speed is actually converted into time during the OEE calculation. Small Stops We can also assume small stops as one of the most difficult of the Six Big Losses to monitor and record. Whenever a machine shows short interruptions and does not have a constant speed, this will not result in a smooth flow of production. Minor stoppages and the subsequent loss of speed can be the cause from products blocking sensors or products getting stuck in the conveyor belts. The machines effectiveness will be diminished drastically if these hitches occur frequently [21]. The occurrence of these losses happens whenever equipment stops for a short time as the result of a temporary problem. As an example, a work-piece is jammed in a chuck or when a sensor activates and shut down the machines, this will definitely result in a minor stoppage. As soon as someone removes the jammed work-piece or resets the sensor instantly, it operates normally again. These losses also include idling losses that occur when equipment continues to run without producing. Thus, since idling and minor stoppages interrupt jobs, therefore they can also be categorized as breakdowns. Despite that, the two are fundamentally different in that a minor stoppage and the duration are usually less than 10 minutes. 2.7.1.3 Quality Losses A scrap is when the final product is not saleable, and the entire process has been wasted on product that will never make it to the customer. Thus, it is very essential to take into account the quality of the product while evaluating OEE. Availability and speed often has been the main focus, and quality is left behind. The key to keep in mind is that without a good product, the rest of the operation is a white elephant. Generally, quality losses are generated during startup while the machine is ramping up, during adjustment, or during normal production, as rejected/unwanted product due to process instabilities. Startup Rejects Products that do not meet the quality standards are called scraps, even if they can be sold as sub-spec. A specific type of quality loss is the startup losses where these losses occur due to when: Starting up of the machine: the production is not stable as soon as the machine starts and the first products do not meet the quality standards. The process of the machine at the end of a production run is no longer stable and the products no longer to be able to meet the specifications require. Quantities of products are no longer counted as part of the production order and consequently are considered as loss. These are usually hidden losses, which are often considered to be unavoidable. The scale of these losses can be surprisingly large [21]. Certain adjustments and warm-up time is required for several equipments to obtain optimum output. Losses that happen in the early stages of production during machine setup to stabilization of product quality are called the startup losses. The losses differ with degree of stability of processing condition, operators technical skill, maintenance level on equipment, and many more. Production rejects A product that does not meet the quality specifications/standards for the first time, but can be reprocessed into good products is known as rework products. Reworking products is not a disadvantage as the product can be sold to fit other demand needs. However, the product was not right first time and is therefore a quality loss just like scrap [21]. Production rejects are classified as quality losses that are not caused by startup. These losses arise only when products produced are not conforming to the specifications. Parts that require rework of any kind should be considered reject and this happens during steady state production. Example of the Downtime loss, Speed loss, and Quality loss is depicted in the following page. The Six Big Losses with three categories are shown in figure below. The following table shows how this Six Big Losses are categorized with examples given. Figure 2.3: Classification of Six Big Losses. The table below lists the Six Big Losses, and show how they are relate to the OEE Loss categories. A typical major loss, the categories of OEE as well as examples of events is shown as follow: OEE Loss Category   Six Big Loss Category   Event Examples   Down Time Loss   Breakdowns   à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Tooling Failures à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Unplanned Maintenance à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ General Breakdowns à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Equipment Failure   Setup and Adjustments à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢Ã‚  Setup/Changeover à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Material Shortages à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Operator Shortages à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Major Adjustments à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Warm-Up Time Speed Loss   Idling and Minor stops   à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Obstructed Product Flow à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Component Jams à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Misfeeds à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Sensor Blocked à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Delivery Blocked à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Cleaning/Checking   Reduced Speed à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Rough Running à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Under Nameplate Capacity à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Under Design Capacity à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Equipment Wear à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Operator Inefficiency Quality Loss   Start-up Losses à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Scrap à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Rework à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ In-Process Damage à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ In-Process Expiration à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Incorrect Assembly   Defect Losses à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Scrap à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Rework à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ In-Process Damage à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ In-Process Expiration à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Incorrect Assembly Table 2.1 : The Six Big Losses in OEE 2.8 OEE factors As explained in previous subsequent chapter, the OEE calculation is based on the three OEE factors. This comprises of Availability, Quality and Performance. They are as well referring as Effectiveness Factors. Here is how each of these factors is calculated. Availability The Availability part of OEE represents the percentage of scheduled time that the equipment is available to function [18]. This Availability element is a measurement of the uptime that is designed to exclude the effects of performance, quality, and scheduled downtime events. Since Availability takes into account of Downtime loss, the formula is calculated as: 20 Availability = Operation time Planned Production time Where, Operation time = Planned production time Unscheduled Downtime Production time = Planned production time Scheduled Downtime Downtime losses zero indicates the availability is 100%, where the gross operating time equals the available time for production. i.e. Operation time equals Planned Production time. Therefore, it can be said that 100% Availability means the process has been running without any recorded stops. Performance Performance can be denoted as the ratio between Net Operating Time and Operating Time. Since Performance takes into account of speed loss, the formula is calculated as: 22 Performance = Net Operating Time Operating Time The Performance portion of OEE corresponds to the speed at which the machine runs as a percentage of its designed speed. This Performance element is a measurement of speed that is designed to exclude the effects of availability and quality [18]. Performance does not penalize for rejects, which imply even if the work is rejected or rework, it will still be included in the planned and actual hours accordingly. Since Performance takes into account Speed Loss, the formula is calculated as: Performance = Ideal Cycle Time Operating Time / Total Pieces 23 Where, Ideal Cycle Time = the minimum cycle time that the process can be expected to achieve in optimal circumstances. It is at times called, Theoretical Cycle Time, Nameplate Capacity or Design Cycle Time. Since Run Rate is the reciprocal of Cycle Time, Performance can also be calculated as: Performance = Total Pieces / Operating Time Ideal Run Rate 24 Performance is limited at 100%, to make sure that if an error is made in specifying the Ideal Cycle Time of Ideal Run Rate, the effect on OEE will be limited. Therefore, it can be said that 100% Performance means the process has been consistently running at its theoretical maximum speed. Quality Rate The Quality portion of the OEE signifies the good units produced as a percentage of the total units produced [18]. The Quality metric is a measurement of process yield that is designed to exclude the effects of availability and performance. Quality is the ratio of Fully Productive Time to Net Operating Time. Quality = Fully Productive Time / Net Operating Time 25 Quality = Good Pieces / Total Pieces Since Quality takes into account of Quality Loss, the formula is calculated as: 26 (Total no of units of processed products- No of units of no good products)/(total no of units of processed products). Thus, it can be said that 100% Quality means there is no rework or reject pieces. Therefore, since OEE takes into account all three OEE factors, the formula is calculated as: 27 OEE = Availability x Performance x Quality Therefore OEE is the product of its effectiveness factors; Availability, Performance and Quality. The study of each of these effectiveness factors will improve the Overall Equipment Effectiveness. Below diagrams shows the three major elements of OEE together with formula calculated . Figure 2.4à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦.Shows the formula on how to calculate OEE Figure 2.5à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Shows the OEE Factors Loss OEE Factor Planned Shutdown Not included in OEE calculation Down Time Loss Availability is the ratio of Operating Time to Planned Production Time (Operating Time is Planned Production Time less Down Time Loss). Calculated as the ratio of Operating Time to Planed Production Time. 100% Availability means the process has been running without any recorded stops. Speed Loss Performance is the ratio of Net Operating Time to Operating Time (Net Operating Time is Operating Time less Speed Loss). Calculated as the ratio of Ideal Cycle Time to Actual Cycle Time, or alternately the ratio of Actual Run Rate to Ideal Run Rate. 100% Performance means the process has been consistently running at its theoretical maximum speed. Table 2.1 indicates the 3 main factors of OEE Quality Loss Quality is the ratio of Fully Productive Time to Net Operating Time (Fully Productive Time is Net Operating Time less Quality Loss). Calculated as the ratio of Good Pieces to Total Pieces. 100% Quality means there have been no reject or rework pieces. 2.9 OEE Components of Plant Operating Time 2.9.1 Components of Plant Operating Time In order to establish an accurate measurement, OEE analysis begins with Plant Operating Time. Basically, this Plant Operating Time implies as the amount of time the facility is open and available for equipment process. It can also be refer as the maximum amount of time and is a constant. One day consists of 24 hours of 60 minutes. While, for one week, it consists of 7 days of 24 hours. Whereas, in one year consists of 52 weeks. At times, Plant Operating Time is also referred to as Theoretical Production Time. It consists of different losses like speed and quality loss as well as fully productive time 2.9.1 Plant Production Time Once a category of called Planned Shut Down is subtracted from Plant Operating Time, the remaining available time is called Planned Production Time. The Planned Shut Down shall include any events that should be excluded from efficiency analysis since there was no intension of running production [22]. For example, tea breaks, lunch breaks, scheduled maintenance or periods where there is nothing to produce. Nevertheless, Planned Production Time is also known as Available Production Time. OEE initiates with Planned Production Time and analyze efficiency as well as productivity losses that occur, with the aim of eliminating or reducing these losses. OEE starts with Plant Operating Time and end up with Fully Productive Time, screening the source of productive loss that occur in between. 2.9.1.1 Operating Time From Planned Production Time, the downtime loss is subtracted to gain Operating Time. The downtime losses inclusive of any events that stop planned production for an appreciable length of time (normally several minute-long enough to log as a traceable event) [22]. Examples of these include material shortages, equipment failures, and changeover time. Since it is also includes as type of downtime, the changeover time is included in OEE analysis. Even though it may not be possible to reduce 9 changeover times, however, it can be reduced in most cases. The remaining available time is called Operating Time and also known as Gross Operating Time [22]. 2.9.1.2 Net Operating Time From the Operating Time, the speed loss is deducted to obtain Net Operating Time. The speed losses take account of any factors that cause the process to operate less than the maximum possible speed while running. Examples of these include machine wear, substandard materials, miss-feeds, and operator inefficiency. 2.9.1.3 Fully Productive Time As for Net Operating Time, the Quality Loss is subtracted and the remaining available time is called the Fully Productive Time. These quality losses accounts for produced pieces that do not meet quality standards, together with pieces that require rework. The goal here is to maximize Fully Productive Time w