Friday, May 31, 2019

Present the way in which imprisonment is presented in The Bell Jar Essa

Present the way in which imprisonment is presented in The Bell Jar The bell jar is an inverted glass jar, generally utilise to scupper an object of scientific curiosity.Present the way in which imprisonment is presented in The Bell JarThe bell jar is an inverted glass jar, generally used to display anobject of scientific curiosity, contain a certain kind of gas, ormaintain a vacuum. For Esther, the bell jar symbolizes madness. Whengripped by insanity, she feels as if she is inside(a) an airless jar thatdistorts her perspective on the world and prevents her from connectingwith the people around her. At the end of the novel, the bell jar haslifted, but she can sense that it fluent hovers over her, waiting todrop at any moment.The narrative technique used in The Bell Jar is a first personnarrative. flat away we get the idea of imprisonment throughelements of the unhappy narrative voice in the early chapters. Thefirst fourth dimension of Sylvia Plaths The Bell Jar alerts the indor ser to theconflicts that will be dealt with in this semi-autobiographical novelIt was a queer, sultry summer, the summer they electrocuted theRosenbergs, and I didnt know what I was doing in New York. Thespeaker will promise us in the next few sentences that she is stupidand that she feels sick, and that she is preoccupied with death.Like Holden Caulfield in Catcher in the Rye, this young, college age,girl-woman is experiencing an adolescent crisis. When Esther Greenwoodtells us in the first sentence that this is the summer theyelectrocuted the Rosenbergs, we get a picture not only of thatsummers being nauseating, sultry, and death-oriented, but that thisyoung girls attitudes and life experiences are ... ...e Plath uses characters such as buddy Willard, employa clever writing technique to show his relationship with others, howpeople viewed him, his actions and physical description. Through Buddywe can have a better reasonableness of Esthers situation. Plath usesthe technique of flashback for suspense and to delay the plot. A lotof similes and metaphors are used to contribute to imprisonment. Forexample similes reflecting the 1950s yellow as cinnamon.Overall, I think that Plath is trying to convey the idea that womenwere being placed in a constricted role in society live as if in abell jar, able to see the outside world of exciting work andself-determined men, but unable to live it. People suffering fromemotional affection are also living as if under a bell jar, isolatedfrom others and unable to escape the distortions of their view of theworld.

Thursday, May 30, 2019

Income and Population Age Structure Essay -- Economics Income GNP Essa

Income and Population mature StructureA) Relationship between per capita gross national product and tribe growthgross national product is the value of all final goods and services produced in aneconomy over a period of one year. Thus per capita gross national product is the divisionof value of goods and services available to each person in a country,i.e. it is the per head income in a country. And population growth isthe rate, by which population grows in an economy.From the above drawn diagrams it can be said that the higher thepopulation growth rate the subvert the per capita GNP and vice versa.This is due to the situation that if the population increases at a fasterrate the GNP will spread over a cock-a-hoop number of people thus cut downthe value of the Gross National Product per head. Similarly if thepopulation grows at a slower rate the GNP is spread over fewer amountof people thus increasing the value of the Gross National Product perhead.To further illustrate this we c an germinate into consideration countrieslike Jordan which has a comparatively high population growth rate of a4.9 and a per capita GNP of onl... Income and Population Age Structure Essay -- Economics Income GNP EssaIncome and Population Age StructureA) Relationship between per capita GNP and population growthGNP is the value of all final goods and services produced in aneconomy over a period of one year. Thus per capita GNP is the divisionof value of goods and services available to each person in a country,i.e. it is the per head income in a country. And population growth isthe rate, by which population grows in an economy.From the above drawn diagrams it can be said that the higher thepopulation growth rate the lower the per capita GNP and vice versa.This is due to the fact that if the population increases at a fasterrate the GNP will spread over a large number of people thus reducingthe value of the Gross National Product per head. Similarly if thepopulation grow s at a slower rate the GNP is spread over fewer numbersof people thus increasing the value of the Gross National Product perhead.To further illustrate this we can take into consideration countrieslike Jordan which has a relatively high population growth rate of a4.9 and a per capita GNP of onl...

Wednesday, May 29, 2019

The Genius of Stanley Kubrick :: Exploratory Essays Research Papers

The Genius of Stanley KubrickMany movie directors have mastered a writing style or two. Wes Craven and John Carpenter are two of the horror film legends. Alfred Hitchcock is probably nonpareil of the five great directors of all time, with thrillers being his direct claim to fame. George Lucas has been the reigning king of science fiction ever since the release of Star Wars. John Ford is arguably the premier director of westerns. In my opinion, however, Stanley Kubrick whitethorn be the person who mastered more genres than any other director. Kubrick was a movie-making genius, much like Steven Spielberg. Anyone you meet on the street can probably call forth five Spielberg movies. Not many people, however, are aware that Stanley Kubrick was the director of The Shining, Full Metal Jacket, A Clockwork Orange, 2001 A Space Odyssey, Spartacus, Dr. Strangelove, and eleven other movies.For my money, The Shining is the greatest horror film ever made. The setting is a real hotel in an iso lated area of Colorado. The movie starred Jack Nicholson and Shelly Duvall. The hotel is completely abandoned neglect for a man, his wife, and their young son. The movie is a master-piece. Under Kubricks direction, Jack Nicholson gives the greatest performance of his career. The Shining will scare the hell out of anyone. In one scene the boy discovers the word murder writ decennary on a wall. He, however, views the word on a mirror, and thus reads it in reverse as redrum. He then proceeds to mutter the word redrum in an eerie manner at various times throughout the movie. The crazed character played by Nicholson chases his son through a maze of tall shrub hedges during a blizzard. The scene is incredible and so is the entire movie. Any fan of horror and/or Jack Nicholson, who has not seen this movie, should rent it immediately. Amazingly, The Shining is the only horror film that Stanley Kubrick made during his forty-nine year career. In my opinion, it is the best of its genre, even better than Hitchcocks Psycho.Among the ten greatest war movies of all time, I would include Saving Private Ryan, The Bridge on The River Kwai, Platoon, and Apocalypse Now. Stanley Kubricks Full Metal Jacket also belongs on this list. No other movie has depicted boot camp the way Kubrick did in this 1987 film. The hair on my arm was literally standing up by the time the movie had completed the segment dealing with boot camp.

Developing a New Ready to Eat Dessert :: Business and Management Studies

Developing a New Ready to Eat DessertI was asked to design and bring on a set to eat dessert. My tar furbish up groupwas all ages of people, specifically people aged between twenty andsixty as they tend to have more funds to spend than teenagers orpensioners.In order to gain an insight into the type of products that could beavailable to me to design and make I first had to do rough research.First I created a questionnaire, and handed it out to fifty people ofdifferent ages. My questionnaire asked a variety of differentquestions much(prenominal) as do you equal chocolate based desserts? Do you likesponge? Do you prefer hot desserts to cold? The results of thisquestions formed the foundation of my project. I wrote letters to managers of supermarkets asking them to mail meinformation on existing products, this helped me understand the typeof cost that was suitable for my product to be interchange at.From a range of magazines I make a collage of different desserts andannotated it , I used this as a kind of brainstorm of ideas, such asthe different layers and colours that could be used.The internet was a big help to my research as I used the supermarketswebsites to find out prices of products and ingredients.In order to condense the range of desserts I was considering I mademyself a speciation table, this stated the criteria my product shouldmeet. I decided that I would prefer my product to be chilled ratherthan frozen, which cancelled out some of my previous ideas such asice-cream dishes.My specification stated that my product should beColdChilledAvailable in individual portionsCheap to produceOf a standard quality put one over a toppingHave a creamy fillingHave a crunchy baseHave a variety of texturesMust be sold at a maximum cost of 2Must have layersNext I had to design ten different products, I illustrated them andannotated them. Referring to the recipe of the dessert. To make mydecision on the final product I tested a few of the suggested ideas. Idecide to make a cheesecake.I had to make confident(predicate) my cheesecake fit my product specification. To mydelight my finished design actually does meet the majority of mycriteria. So overall my cheesecake has been a success.The only area that did not go as planned was the portion size. Mycheesecake ended up as a family size portion. This was due to thecomplication of the packaging, and sizing. I found it very hard to getthe individual portions exactly the same size each time, it was easier

Tuesday, May 28, 2019

Melodrama Essay -- Literary Analysis,Steve Neal, Christine Gledhil

There are many debates in Film Studies over what films count as melodramas. Film scholar Steve Neales essay, Melodrama and the Womans film, describes the paradigm shift that melodrama has experienced from the Silent era to the 70s. On the other hand, Christine Gledhills essay, Rethinking Genre and The Melodramatic Field An Investigation, give notice that melodrama is just a mode and, not, in fact, a genre. While Thomas Elsaessers essay Tales of Sound and Fury Observations on The Family Melodrama, identifies the different types of melodrama. But what is a true form of the melodrama genre? At first, it might be difficult to understand why an animated film such as Curious George make my nephew ask me why he felt like crying when the monkey was separated from his zookeeper, and proceeded to ask why the film made him sad. What my little nephew didnt hold out was that I also cried. Melodramatic films are those that make you cry films that have an essence of verisimilitude, evoke pathos, and use music to accentuate the drama. In this essay, I result take elements of Neale, Elsaesser, and Gledhills discourses on melodrama to support my definition. By the end of this essay, I will give a brief explanation on why the histrionic film as the contemporary drama is important and universally understood. In order for a film to be considered to be a melodrama it has to have a presence of verisimilitude. In other words, a melodramatic film has to mimic real life. According to Elsaessers essay, he says that, even if the situations and sentiments defied all categories of verisimilitude and were totally contrary anything in real life, the structure had a truth and a life of its own, which artists could make part of their material (37... ...ealizes the loss Pita is going to have. By adulthood, champion is familiar with extreme sadness and true suffering. Most adults know the feeling of never being able to say you love someone because they have passed on. Or, losing your fav orite toy. Even if you havent gone through such life changing events, we have all experienced the separation from our mothers womb into the world. Our first cry is our first accidental injury that is implanted into our psyche. Thats why in Melodramatic films are solemnly those of great pathos that make the security guard cry because they familiarizes with the pain (even a five year old can understand), and there are cries of joy at the end for the purpose of catharsis which relieves of trauma of separation. (Why is crying therapeutic? How does it relieve this trauma? Does it cause us to confront the anxiety of separation you are referring to?)

Melodrama Essay -- Literary Analysis,Steve Neal, Christine Gledhil

There be many debates in Film Studies entirely over what enters count as melodramas. Film scholar Steve Neales essay, Melodrama and the Womans film, describes the paradigm shift that melodrama has experienced from the Silent era to the 70s. On the another(prenominal) hand, Christine Gledhills essay, Rethinking Genre and The Melodramatic Field An Investigation, suggest that melodrama is just a mode and, not, in fact, a genre. While Thomas Elsaessers essay Tales of serious and Fury Observations on The Family Melodrama, identifies the different types of melodrama. But what is a true form of the melodrama genre? At first, it might be difficult to understand why an shake film such as Curious George made my nephew ask me why he felt like crying when the monkey was separated from his zookeeper, and proceeded to ask why the film made him sad. What my little nephew didnt know was that I also cried. Melodramatic films argon those that make you cry films that have an essence of verisimi litude, evoke pathos, and drop music to accentuate the drama. In this essay, I will take elements of Neale, Elsaesser, and Gledhills discourses on melodrama to support my definition. By the end of this essay, I will give a brief explanation on why the melodramatic film as the contemporary drama is important and universally understood. In order for a film to be considered to be a melodrama it has to have a presence of verisimilitude. In other words, a melodramatic film has to mimic real life. According to Elsaessers essay, he says that, even if the situations and sentiments defied all categories of verisimilitude and were totally unlike anything in real life, the structure had a truth and a life of its own, which artists could make part of their square (37... ...ealizes the loss Pita is going to have. By adulthood, one is familiar with extreme sadness and true suffering. Most adults know the feeling of never being fit to say you love someone because they have passed on. Or, losi ng your favorite toy. Even if you havent gone through such life changing events, we have all experienced the separation from our mothers womb into the world. Our first cry is our first trauma that is implanted into our psyche. Thats why in Melodramatic films are solemnly those of great pathos that make the spectator cry because they familiarizes with the pain (even a five year old can understand), and there are cries of pleasure at the end for the purpose of catharsis which relieves of trauma of separation. (Why is crying therapeutic? How does it relieve this trauma? Does it cause us to confront the anxiety of separation you are referring to?)

Monday, May 27, 2019

Motivation to Pursue a Healthcare MBA program Essay

Early in life, my family taught me the value of work, the importance of managing, respecting, gratifying the of necessity of the employees satisfactorily and the rigors of establishing and maintaining a blood line. For over 20 years, my family has owned and operated a chain of 11 convenient stores and other piddling businesses. Surrounded and influenced by the ups and downs of daily business life I developed the impetus to succeed in a business setting.With this business experience, the compilation of science courses taken throughout college and the experience gained in the industry, I am determined to further develop my stance on how I could be most valuable in the society as a healthcare administrator or hospital CEO. Throughout the years I admit acquired the basics of understanding the health care set up, but a Healthcare MBA from George Washington University is thus the master key to give me the knowledge and skills necessary to conscientiously and professionally execute the r esponsibilities of hospital CEO.During my time whilst at UNC, I was involved with the agency, Communities in Schools, whereby I offered to mentor and/or tutor high school students. A particular experience I cherish is when I helped a certain weak student, who had lost hope in school, to build confidence and motivation to study hard and pass his exams. The student is now attending college and attributes his achievement to my helping him discover his own potential. These endeavors have allowed me to assume the role of a mentor and an instructor, and have further taught me to become a communicative leader who female genital organ guide others in their development.Moreover, the sheer amount of pleasure I received from aiding the students in achieving their lasts reflects my commitment to a career of service, which your program will steer me towards perfecting. I have perfected my abilities to work well under pressure with minimum supervision throughout the years the necessary virtues of a good administrator. Perhaps regular more important, throughout my experience, I have discovered the importance of sharing and accepting criticism.I understand how to deliver feedback without judging or discouraging others, and I use the advice of others to improve my own behavior. I admit that throughout my college education, my academic performance was sub-par however, I attribute this to spending ample time participating in various non-academic activities. I was pushed to my limit as I was compelled to balance my time between studying and maintaining involvement in other aspects of my life that I am passionate, serving others and dancing.Although being an active person affected my scholastic performance, it was my involvement in those activities that stimulated my leadership potential, trained me to network with various agencies, and allowed me to give something small back to my community. It takes perseverance, drive and passion to rise above set-backs that we create for o urselves along the way and my long-term goal has served as the light at the end of the tunnel. My goal is simple intellectual enrichment and to use my knowledge to help build a better society.The experience, knowledge and skills I have accumulated this far, put me in a position to successfully embark on new challenges. I want to pursue a higher degree because I know I have the potential to achieve academic success and thus redeem my undergraduate academic experience. It is my belief and conviction that a person is educated if they constantly give to attain knowledge while simultaneously recognizing the usefulness of this knowledge towards society. Confident in my ability to adapt well and learn new techniques, I am ready to commit and follow the advice of my mentors pursue a Healthcare MBA from George Washington University.

Sunday, May 26, 2019

Language education Essay

It is not a secret that teaching has a cracking role in our life. In our everlastingly changing world we have to get knowledge from e genuinelything from people and things surrounding us, from different technologies, from our experience. save nothing of these can take the place of a instructor, who plays a striking role in life of every person. During rather long period of time a teacher was an integral part of childrens life. He does not only impart the knowledge of the world, prepares children for everyday life but also influences their souls, teaches them to be honest, to be patient, to help each other, torespect each other. and who is a teacher?We usu anyy think that a teacher especially if we speak of a female is a nervous persistent creature. And if we speak of a male, we are sure he is odd, absent- minded and very often not strongly built and healthy. But in the broadest sense, a teacher can be defined as someone who not only teaches or imparts knowledge, but also someone responsible for shaping the minds and hearts of all those whom they teach. Foreign dustup teachers have a lot of common qualities with the teachers of other subjects.Moreover such(prenominal) ideal teacher would posses personal qualities, technical abilities and professional understanding. One mustiness conduct that the future of any student depends on the qualities and dedication of a teacher of unconnected language or any other subject. That is why it is necessary to be a entire teacher who will create an interest in students to achieve the aims they set for themselves. But what qualities, features do make a teacher a good teacher? Speaking about it first of all we should touch teachers personal and professional qualities.The most important feature for two foreign language teacher and teacher of other subjects is to enjoy his profession and love children. If a teacher loves his profession and his students he is ready to devote themselves to such a hard snip as being a teac her. A teacher who is full of love for his work is motivated, energized, and creative he comes to place of work in high spirits, he is unmortgaged and can share his positive emotions with the students. The next most important concern is teachers eternal patience. A foreign language teacher must be patient.He must never be annoyed with students because they dont understand something. Not all children learn at the same pace and inevitably some will require special attention. However, giving up on these children is a mistake as they can usually succeed with encouragement and hard work. It is a well-known fact that a good teacher must possess leadership qualities. He must have great confidence and strong will power to obtain the best results from his students. A good sense of humour is another great tool that helps a teacher to simplify his task.Ithink that a good sense of humor can create a pleasant melody where everyone knows they can ask questions, make mistakes or try out new idea s. One more qualities of a good teacher which is necessary to mention is respect. It is very important to respect the students, their opinions, ideas, style of living, and attitude towards something. Having that respect for others gets you the respect back from others. Endurance, tolerance, optimism, enthusiasm, objectiveness, amiable disposition are also in the first ranks of qualities of a good teacher.I think that all these characteristics are some kind of challenge for a person because it is not so simplified to combine all of them. But as the future teachers we must make every effort in wander to develop them because we are the future examples for younger generation. Besides, a good foreign language teacher should possess certain professional knowledge. First of all he must know psychology of his children. It will help a teacher to have a certain way with the students, to involve them, to make the lessons more interesting and effective.Without any doubt a good foreign languag e teacher must be knowledgeable in his subject, because he is an example for the pupils. He must know all the peculiarities of the language, its grammar, lexical structure perfectly well. The pronunciation of a good foreign language teacher must also be on a high level. In other words he must be a professional, a master of his skills. Besides, a good teacher also must have the ability to analyze his work in order to see his mistakes, to find more effective and productive way of teaching.But on the other hand, their social position of officially respected but mischievously paid specialists doesnt allow them to occupy the desirable step on the social ladder. Unfortunately very often teachers dont have an easy access to necessary scientific literature to improve their professional skills. One more negative aspect of this profession is that they almost have no weekends, as their Monday is more likely to begin on Sunday, because some important preparations should be done. And young teach ers are often not ready for the emotional impact and the fare of workcoming down on the teacher.To draw the conclusion, one can say that future teachers must remember that being a teacher is a great responsibility, because teachers are charged with childrens young souls. They must improve themselves in order to become good teachers, to acquire the qualities which will help to open childrens hearts, to become friends for them, to become examples for them to follow, to stay in their minds and hearts forever. One cannot deny that the experience the teachers get at school make a great influence on their attitudes to life and people.

Saturday, May 25, 2019

Food Cloning Essay

intellectual nourishment cloning is a very contr oversial topic to be discussed because of the large derive of disagreements associated with it. Just like anything else in the world, it has positive and negative sides to it. The consumers altogether over the world only see the negative side. It is time that they now witness the benefits that cloned forage brings along with it. This paper leave alone outline these controversies and entrust describe how the media portrays them. It ordain in addition demonstrate the effect of regimen cloning on our culture, if there is any, and will highlight what this new engineering acquirement can do for mans future.Discussion pabulum cloning is basically obtaining food from cloned animals. How exactly does this work? It is as simple as this. Biotech companies clone animals such as cows, pigs and goats etc by taking the nuclei of cells from adults and combining them into other egg cells from which the nuclei collect been extracted. Usin g this method, a large military furnish of livestock have already been cloned for sale to producers (Reuters, 2003). The first cloned animal that was ever produced was a sheep in 1997. Since then, this technology has become more common and common with time.Because of this reason, the Food and Drug Authority asserted its control over cloning (Patel & Rushefsky, 2002). Food cloning is a controversial topic since the time cloning of animals was introduced in 1997. Consumer groups all over the world want authorities to look in ethical and moral issues that are associated with cloning. People are non leting this new technology and the benefits that come with it for a variety of reasons and controversies. The controversies largely have to do with the degree of safety of the totality, take out and other food products that are obtained from these cloned animals.Why is safety an issue? The answer to this question is obvious. Man is once again trying to intervene with nature and this ma y not give out the best results because man is plain to errors. Therefore, man will never be able to produce or reproduce animals and food products exactly like the ones present naturally with the help of science and technology and this difference is the main health concern of authorities all over the world. Another reason why cloned food is considered unsafe is that cloned animals usually have higher death rate, low life expectancy and are more prone to diseases (Poulter, 2008).Other safety issues that are considered to pose include the possibility of cause allergic reactions in human and unexpected genetic effects, altering of significant nutrients that are required, containing higher level of toxicants, reducing the effects of antibiotics, and others (Gralla, & Gralla, 2004). After the famous bloody shame Shellys story in which she creates a Frankenstein, people have started to associate cloned animals with that as well. They maintenance that just like the Frankenstein turned against its creator, the food products obtained from cloned animals may similarly back fire.They think that just like the Frankenstein turned out to be harmful, cloned food products will also turn out to be harmful. Because of these health concerns, consumers all over are getting worried and concerned regarding whether of not the food products they are having are cloned or not. According to a source, companies now want their produced food products to be labeled as clone free so that their consumers can buy and consume food products without having to worry about safety issues. We can consequence the example of Ben and Jerrys.Because of this non acceptance of the consumers, Ben and Jerrys which is a popular ice cream producing company want to ensure their customers through media that the ice cream they produce comes from commonplace cows and not clones (The Associated Press, 2008). The media has a huge role to play in this. It do the debate regarding food cloning very open and all the concerns were rectify there in front of the consumers. Despite being confirmed as safe by the presidency, cloned food will not be accepted by consumers.However, the reality may be a lot different from this perception that the general public has regarding cloned food. Various legal authorities have given a green light to the use of cloned food as they consider it safe. These include the government, scientists and agencies like the Food and Drug Administration are using media to affirm the item that there is no difference in food products from cloned animals and from conventional livestock. Stephen F.Sundlof, director of the Food and Drug Administration Center for Veterinary Medicine announced that meat and milk from cattle, swine and goat clones is as safe to eat as the food we eat every day, Both cloned and natural foods are equally safe and this also goes for the food obtained from off springs of cloned animals (The Associated Press, 2008). They say that there is nothing in the world that is completely natural, therefore there is no reason to stop when it comes to food and not use science and technology to use ways in which abundant food can be do available and that too at correct quality. An example of potatoes is given.It is said that potatoes are not edible in their natural form as they are poisonous. Only after selective breeding, they are made edible (Crompton, 2007). Another point put forward to counter the argument of cloned animals being more prone to diseases and having a lower expectancy age is that the milk and meat obtained from cloned animals while they are healthy and alive will not harm the consumers in any way. Therefore there is no reason to be scared to consume such foods. The government and agencies like FDA have confirmed the safety of the foods but still the businesses are not ready to use cloned animals for their products.They fear that if they use such animals, they will have to label their products as cloned and because of th is people will not go for this product. However, their fear is logical because people are not ready as yet. We are living in a world where the population is change magnitude at a very rapid exponential rate. This increasing population will eventually demand food and the rate at which we are using up all our resources, it is predicted that very soon man will not have a lot to eat. We need to find better and newer ways which enable that we have abundant food supply for everyone in the world. biotechnology is a new field that has been grown because of this. Cloned food is something that has been developed as a result. There were health concerns in the past regarding cloned food, but since now the government and other authorities like FDA have confirmed the safety of food obtained from cloned animals, we consumers must learn to accept it as in near future, this food will become a necessity and out only option. Conclusion In conclusion, I would once again like to emphasize on the need t o accept such technologies. Food cloning was considered unsafe in the past because it is something new.Everything new has to go through a testing stage until it can be made ready to use. Similarly, food cloning has undergone the testing stage and it is now safe and ready to use. It is no longer the Frankenstein that it was once considered and because of this it has been made legal all over the world.References The Associated Press (2008) Cloned food may prompt clone-free labels. Retrieved, 4 Oct, 2008, from MSNBC. Web locate http//www. msnbc. msn. com/id/16383458/ Crompton, S. (2007) Frankensteins monsters or the future of food? Retrieved, 4 Oct, 2008, from Times Online. Web site http//women. timesonline. co.uk/tol/life_and_style/women/body_and_soul/article1461151. ece Gralla, J. D. & Preston Gralla (2004) Complete Idiots Guide to Understanding Cloning. Alpha Books. Patel, K. & Mark E. Rushefsky (2002) Health Care Policy in an Age of New Technologies. M. E. Sharpe. Poulter, S (2008 ) EU gives green light for cloned food to go on sale in UK shops. Retrieved, 4 Oct, 2008, from Daily Mail Online. Web site http//www. dailymail. co. uk/health/article-507700/EU-gives-green-light-cloned-food-sale-UK-shops. html Reuters (2003) Cloned Food OK by FDA. Retrieved, 4 Oct, 2008, from Wired. Web site http//www. wired. com/techbiz/media/news/2003/10/61038

Friday, May 24, 2019

Qing Dynasty Essay

The last dynasty in China, the Qing dynasty, ruled from 1644 to 1911, and there is argument to say that their failures, especially those towards the end of their rule, created the underlying tension and ideologies behind the communist victory in China and the consequential establishment of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). These failures can be subdivided into military failures, weaknesses of the leadership, financial disarray, political troubles, and the Qing dynastys failure to implement lasting, effective reforms. It can easily be argued that the Qing dynasty didnt recognise the importance of the military until it was too late and they suffered for neglecting it. The dismissal of a lynchpin general, Yuan Shikai in 1908 can be seen as a turn point for the military in this period. The dismissal wasnt for valid reasons, only when rigorously a chance for Regent Prince Chun to assert his authority. However, this had disastrous consequences the Qing dynasty, as they had lost the ir only loyal general, exit them without military protection, an issue which had already been exacerbated by the boxer Rising in 1900-1901.The Qing dynasty then made a further mistake in putting too much trust in him when he (reluctantly) returned. This resulted in Yuan Shikai using his unarguable military strength to gain political causation. In all, this left the Qing dynasty with little, if any military strength. Their army wasnt loyal, nor was it organised and there was much internal strife. Therefore the Chinese state were left yearning for a government that was strong enough to command military as come up as political power, planting the ideas of revolution in their heads. The Qing dynasty also had a lot of problems with leadership. During the 100 Days period of attempted reform, obvious internal power struggles arose which further weakened the dynasty. Here there was the struggle between the reactionaries of the government, those that wanted China to remain traditional a nd to uphold the ideas of Confucian living, and progressives who were in support of carry in reform and change to modify China. With hindsight, it can be argued that, perhaps if the progressives had won the debate over reform, there might not have raze been a need for a revolution.However, at the time it is important to note that the ideas of Confucian living and social harmony were a core part of Chinese society, and because most of the Chinese public had not known any different, something as radical as what the progressives were suggesting was seen as alien and threatening.The reactionaries outweighed the progressives in court, and led by Dowager Empress Cixi, they squeeze themselves into power. For a while, although Cixi was in no way a perfect leader, at least there was a constant leader who was reliable. However in 1908, upon the destruction of Emperor Guangxu and Dowager Empress Cixi, Pu Yi came to be emperor. However emperor Pu Yi was only a very small child at the time, so Prince Chun acted as regent. He lacked authority, and so 3 further years of inapposite leadership followed. The Chinese public started looking for someone who was confident to lead them into a revolution and found them what they need in way of reform, opening up and opportunity for a new leader to step in.From the end of the Opium Wars, the Qing government had been plunged into a state of bankruptcy, leaving them without enough money to impose an industrial modernisation programme that China so desperately needed. This was made worse by the crippling penalties imposed after the Boxer Rising in 1900-01. The effect of this is most obviously highlighted with the railways crisis from 18958-1911. During this time the railway boom in China meant a great opportunity for provinces to thrive, saving in trade and new jobs. However, the Qing government chose to nationalise the railway, and to be able to afford to do so, that meant that they had to raise taxes and rely on foreign loans. Naturally, the Chinese people in these provinces werent happy with the situation that not only have the government taken away a huge possibility for local investment, but were then imposing taxes on the very people who were missing out.This led to open opposition of the government for the first time in China, as wholesome as a damaged sense of pride because they were relying on foreign investment. The Qing dynasty was widely regarded among the Chinese as old-fashioned and redundant. First of all, this was down to the simple fact that they originated from Manchuria, which wasnt even part of China, meaning that they were out of touch with the growing popularity of nationalism. Also, their authoritarian tradition made them incapable of responding to the demands of the revolutionaries, who were inspired by Japanese and westerly models of democracy. This is because, among the people, there was fear of the punishments associated with disrupting the social harmony (defying the governmen t).Combined with the governments fear of change, it can be argued that this is why it took until 1949 for China to have a revolution, compared to the States or France. Finally, and most importantly, was the Qing dynastysblatant disregard for the crucial need for reforms. The closest that they got to reform was during the 100 Days in 1905, when reforms based on westward models were proposed but completely ignored in courts and so therefore didnt go through. Part of this was to do with Dowager Empress Cixi leading a strong opposition against the reform. However, she later went on to introduce some reform, for example she brought an end to tests in Confucianism for government positions and she created provincial assemblies.Many historians have argued, however, that this was just an attempt to win over the revolutionaries who were turning against the idea of an establishment all together. Generally, by the time of the formal abdication of the Qing dynasty in 1912, the revolutionaries w ithin China were ready for change. They were fed up with having a corrupt, inconsistent central government that werent in touch with the modern concepts behind revolutionary thoughts. This lay the foundations for the Chinese revolution and the eventual establishment of the PRC in 1949.

Thursday, May 23, 2019

BMW business model crunches gears as models expand, profit falls Essay

This phrase discusses the recent changes in gross sales, net profit, and profits of BMW, the German based manufacturer of luxuriousness automobiles. The article opens by proposing five market scenarios that may affect the way BMW conducts business and earns revenue. The scenarios include changes in laws, consumer desires, auto financing availability, political climate, and consumer buying habits. Recently, earnings have declined by 63 percent and further losses are anticipated.Company executives and industry analysts note that earnings on certain models has declined while sales have increased over a 10 year period. The change is attributed to a lower demand for the high end performance cars that have been BMWs core product. In response BMW has sold more smaller less expensive cars as a way to respond to changing market demands. This article demonstrates several factors that affect a companys profitability competition in the market, consumer demand and habits, and the company busi ness model.In the case of BMW these changes were prompted by commandment regarding gas prices and environsal concerns which changed consumers driving and car buying habits. BMW responded to this change by switching to a different line of cars including SUVs and compact cars. They sold more units at lower prices compromising the overall profitability of the company instead of conforming their high performance base model to be fuel efficient. Intels break warning sounds alarm for tech sector This article discusses the issues that led Intel to cut its revenue and profit forecasts for upcoming periods.Intel has reduced profit forecasts and their stock prices have declined by seven percent. Other technology companies including Microsoft, which uses Intel microchips, and competitors such as National Semiconductor Corp have also lowered their profit forecasts. These reports have spread panic across the industry that consumer spending pass on continue to decline. Intel also cited the c redit crisis as an issue affecting demand for products and the ability of suppliers to provide services that Intel involve in its manufacturing process.Industry analysts note that Intels slow performance is normally indicative of early spring results, but do not speculate on how the current outlook may affect the coming spring results. This article demonstrates how one factor sight have an adverse and possibly unnecessary shun affect on profitability speculation. As mentioned in the article speculation alone caused stock prices to tumble. Investors assume that profits will be low and will either divest or not further invest affecting the companys ability to finance production operations.Suppliers assume the worst and fudge it difficult for the company to obtain materials they need to manufacture and get chips to the market. End users like Hewlett Packard and Microsoft may purchase chips from competitors on the assumption that Intel will not be able to deliver. In other words, a grim forecast can become a self fulfilling prophecy. The difference in the two articles is that the BMW article demonstrates a verifiable and valid set of issues that can and do affect the profitability of the company and the automobile industry as a whole.The Intel article demonstrates how speculation can affect consumer confidence in a way that can reduce profitability. BMW has analyzed the real issues that have reduced their profitability and are in a position to change their business model to respond to the situations identified in the article. Intel, on the other hand, has subjected itself to speculation and must wait to see how the market environment plays out. They can change their forecast but that is not a solid guarantee that consumers will respond positively to the change.

Wednesday, May 22, 2019

Social Media and Violence

Why atomic number 18 so many young plurality turning to prescription drugs to get high? By survey, intimately 50% of teens believe that taking prescription drugs is much safer than using illegal street drugs. prescription(prenominal) drug abuse is a major issue that does not seem to be moving towards a solution. Theres a reason why prescription drugs are intended to be sharen under a doctors counsellor if people dont use them as they are to be taken, they can be extremely dangerous. Despite what many people think, abusing prescription drugs is not safer than abusing illicit drugs.The facts do state that prescription drugs can have dangerous short and long-term health consequences when used incorrectly or by soul other than they were intended for. Medicines are drugs that are intended to speed up or slow down or change something about the way your form is working, to try to make it work better. Sometimes they are necessary. But they are still drugs they act as stimulants or se datives, and too much can pull down you. So if you do not use medicines as they are supposed to be used, they can be as dangerous as illegal drugs.People take drugs because they want to change something in their lives. Here are some of the reasons young people have given for taking drugs * To fit in * To escape or relax * To relieve boredom * To seem grown up * To rebel * To experiment Young people think drugs are a solution. But lastly the drugs become the problem. To some it may be difficult to face problems, the consequences of drug use are always worse than the problem a person is act to solve with them. The real answer is to get the facts and not to take drugs in the first place.Something that is not known by most young people is the adventure they are taking by consuming these highly potent and mind altering drugs. Long term use of painkillers can lead to dependence, even for people who are prescribed them to relieve a medical condition but eventually get caught up in an ad diction. In many cases, the dangers of painkillers dont surface until it is too late. In 2007, abuse of the painkiller Fentanyl killed more than 1,000 people. The drug was found to be thirty to fifty times more powerful than heroin. Association, 2012) Prescription painkillers are powerful drugs that interfere with the nervous systems transmission of the nerve signals we perceive as pain. Most painkillers also stimulate portions of the brain associated with pleasure. So, man blocking pain, they produce a high. The most powerful prescription painkillers are called opioids. They are manufactured to react on the nervous system in the akin way as drugs made from the opium poppy, like heroin. The most commonly abused opioid painkillers include oxycodone- is the number one abused prescription drug and has the greatest dangers.It is as powerful as heroin and affects the nervous system the same way, hydrocodone, meperidine, hydromorphone and propoxyphene. (htt2) According to the National C enter on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University, teens who abuse prescription drugs are twice as likely to use alcohol, five times more likely to use marijuana, and twelve to cardinal times more likely to use illegal street drugs such as heroin, ecstasy and cocaine than teens who do not abuse prescription drugs. (Association, 2012)What is our government doing to help? In 2011 the Obama Administration with the help of the National Drug Control Strategy came up with a prescription drug abuse prevention externalise and is as follows. * Education. A crucial first step in tackling the problem of prescription drug abuse is to educate parents, youth, and patients about the dangers of abusing prescription drugs, while requiring prescribers to get down education on the appropriate and safe use, and proper storage and disposal of prescription drugs. * Monitoring.Implement prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs) in every state to suppress doctor shopping and diversion, and enhance PDMPs to make sure they can share data across states and are used by healthcare providers. * Proper medicinal drug Disposal. Develop convenient and environmentally responsible prescription drug disposal programs to help decrease the supply of unused prescription drugs in the home. * Enforcement. Provide legality enforcement with the tools necessary to eliminate improper prescribing practices and stop pill mills. (htt4)Prescription drug addiction is a huge problem and appears to be growing. All people of life are affected by prescription drug abuse. Drug abuse in any form is a very serious issue and should be turn to as quickly as possible. http//kidshealth. org/teen/drug_alcohol/drugs/prescription_drug_abuse. html http//www. theantidrug. com/drugabuse/prescription-drug-rx-abuse/default. aspx http//www. whitehouse. gov/ondcp/prescription-drug-abuse Association, A. p. (2012). School Librarians Workshop, 32(4), 6. In Dealing with drugs.

Tuesday, May 21, 2019

Fringe Benefits

Fringe realize meaning either privilege, service, facility or amenity, at once or indirectly endured to employee by an employer Any reimbursement for whatever purpose . Contri stillion to approved superannuation fund The term Fringe r all(prenominal)s refer to various unembellished benefits provided to the employees, in attachment to the compensation stipendiary in the form of net profit or recompense. These benefits mountain be delimit as any wage terms non directly connected with the employees nut-bearing effort, exertion, service or sacrifice.Diffe pack terms be used to denote beautify benefits. They argon welfargon measures, sociable charges, social credential measures, supplements, sub-wages, employee benefits etc. In addition workers commonly receive much(prenominal) benefits as holiday with pay, low follow meals, low-rent housing etc. Such additions to the wage proper argon some successions referred to as beautify benefits. Benefits that stomach n o relation to employment or wages should not be regarded as fringe benefits even though they may pay impinge on a significant part of the workers total income.Thus, fringe benefits ar those monetary and non-monetary benefits given to the employees during and post employment stay which be connected with employment but not to the employees components to the organization. Coverage Fringe benefits covers bonus, social security measures, retirement benefits like provident fund, gratuity, subvention, workmens compensation, housing, medical exam, canteen, co-operative credit, consumer stores, educational facilities, unskilled facilities, financial advice and so on. OBJECTIVES OF FRINGE BENEFITS The historic objectives of fringe benefits be 1.To create and improve sound industrial relations 2. To boost up employee morale. 3. To motivate the employees by identifying and satisfying their unsatisfied needs. 4. To provide soft work environment and work life. 5. To provide security t o the employees against social risks like obsolete age benefits and maternity benefits. 6. To comfort the health of the employees and to provide safety to the employees against happenings. 7. To conjure employees welf ar by providing welfare measures like recreation facilities. 8. To create a sense of belongingness among employees and to retain them.Hence, fringe benefits are called golden hand-cuffs. 9. To meet requirements of various legislations relating to fringe benefits. NEED FOR EXTENDING FRINGE BENEFITS Most organisation have been extending the fringe to their employees, year after year, for the following reasons i) Rising prices and apostrophize of living has brought about incessant ask for provision of extra benefit to the employees. (ii) Employers too have found that fringe benefits present attractive areas of negotiation when larger wage and honorarium increases are not feasible. iii) As organizations have unquestionable ore elaborate fringe benefits programs f or their employees, greater pressure has been placed upon competing organizations to match these benefits in topical anaestheticize to attract and keep employees. (iv)Recognition that fringe benefits are non-taxable rewards has been major stimulus to their expansion. v) The growing volume of labor legislation, specially social security legislation, made it imperative for employers to distribute equally with their employees the cost of old age, survivor and disability benefits. vi) The growth and strength of trade unions has substantially influenced the growth of go with benefits and service. (vii) The management has increasingly realized its responsibility towards its employees and has come to the conclusion that the benefits of increase in productivity resulting from increasing industrialization should go, at least partly, to the employees who are responsible for it, so that they may be saved against the insecurity arising from unemployment, moldness, injury and old age. te lephoner benefits-and-services programs are among some of the mechanisms which managers use to supply this security.TYPES OF FRINGE BENEFITS Organizations provide a variety of fringe benefits. The fringe benefits are separateified chthonian four items as given here downstairs pic 1. For Employment Security Benefits under this head include unemployment, insurance, technological adjustment pay, draw a blank travel pay, overtime pay, level for negotiation, hold for maternity, leave for grievances, holi geezerhood, cost of living bonus, call-back pay, lay-off, retiring rooms, jobs to the sons/daughters of the employees and the like. 2. For Health ProtectionBenefits under this head include stroking insurance, disability insurance, health insurance, hospitalization, life insurance, medical care, sick benefits, sick leave, etc. 3. For Old Age and Retirement Benefits under this kinsperson include deferred income plans, pension, gratuity, provident fund, old age assistance, old ag e advise , medical benefits for retired employees, traveling concession to retired employees, jobs to sons/daughters of the deceased employee and the like. 4. For Personnel Identification, Participation and input signal This category overs the following benefits anniversary awards, attention bonus, canteen, cooperative credit societies, educational facilities, violator parlor services, housing, income tax aid, counseling, quality bonus, recreational programs, stress counseling, safety measures etc. CLASSIFICATION OF FRINGE BENEFITS 1. PAYEMENT FOR TIME not WORKED-Benefits under this category include sick leave with pay, vacation pay, paid rest and relief time, paid lunch periods, grievance time, bargaining time, travel time etc. 2.EXTRA TIME FOR TIME WORKED-This category covers benefits such as premium pay, incentive bonus, shift premium, old age insurance, profit sharing, unemployment compensation, deewali or pooja bonus, food cost subsidy, housing subsidy, recreation etc. 3. E MPLOYEE security system-Provided with the benefits of confirmation of the employee on the job creates a sense of job security. Further, a stripped and continuous wage or earnings gives a sense of security to life. 4. SAFETY AND HEALTH-In India, the Factories Act, 1948, stipulated certain requirements regarding on the job(p) conditions with a view to providing a safe working environment.FRINGE BENEFITS IN A MANUFACTURING FIRM To study the fringe benefits provided to employees particularly in a manufacturing concern , lets look at some of the major manufacturing companies. These are i) Larsen and Toubro iii)Nokia ii)Mahindra and Mahindra iv)Tata Motors LARSEN AND TOUBRO The governing theme in this organisation is the headspring being of employees. The salary and benefits offered are on par with the best available in Construction Industry.A few important perquisites & welfare avoidances are highlighted below Special Facilities for Site employees are provided. These special facili ties include ? Subsidized accommodation, ? Part furnishing of accommodation provided ? Free transport facilities for work. ? Special Medical restitution system of rules This scheme is in addition to new(prenominal) medical benefits available to employees. Employees have the pickaxe of covering their parents, aged upto 85 years under this scheme. ? Retirement Benefits all staff members are cover under Provident Fund and Gratuity Scheme. L&T base of Technology, Mumbai is an exclusive facility for L&T employees children. -The Institute conducts four-year industry-integrated diploma courses in Mechanical plan and Electronics Engineering. On successful course completion, students are awarded diplomas by the Directorate of Technical teaching method, Maharashtra to which LTIT is affiliated. Prize Money for Academic exercise To acknowledge and motivate meritorious wards of employees, the benefit Department of LT presents cash awards to students who have scored high percentage ma rks. There are several special benefits at Managerial Levels.Several attractive benefits are available including ? Provision of company car, ? Loans for furniture, housing ? Children higher(prenominal) education ? Purchase of Personal Computer, ? Membership of Superannuation scheme ? Reimbursement of costs on club membership MAHINDRA AND MAHINDRA requital RULES AND DESIGN GUIDELINES Monthly Components Guidelines ? Basic Minimum Basic cipher for skilled, semi skilled and un skilled employees is a minimum of Rs. 2650, 2950 and 3250/-. yet on the safer side, Basic figure less is not less than Rs. 3500/- p. m. Income taxation Benefit NIL House Rent Allowance (HRA) upper limit 50% basic (Metro cities) 40% basic (non thermionic tube cities).Income Tax Benefit Excess of Actual rent paid over 10% of Basic salary OR uttermost HRA allowed (50% or 60% of basic) OR Actual Rent Paid whichever is lower is Exempt from Tax. ? Transport Allowance Conveyance allowance meant for transportation between office and residence only. Income Tax Benefit Exempt maximum up to Rs. 800/- per month. No proof required. ? Childrens education allowance Income Tax Benefit Rs. one hundred per child idea to max 2 children. Hence maximum Rs. 200/- is exempt Special Allowance Balancing figure after choosing all the above components with respect to their maximum limits absorbed, remaining touchstone can be named as Special Allowance. It is fully taxable. ? Medical Reimbursements Pay against medical bills Income Tax Benefit Maximum Rs. 1250/- p. m. (Rs. 15000 p. a. ) is exempt only if Original Bills are provided ? Food Coupons Non cash component, exempt up to Rs. 1000/- p. m. ? Provident Fund (Retrials) Employers contribution (this is given to RPFC directly. However employees contribution is deducted from his Monthly salary above and sent to RPFC.Hence total deduction works out to be 12+12 = 24% of Basic. Income Tax Benefit Employees contribution of 12% is eligible for Deduction from Tax able income. It can be treated as exempt investment. ? Gratuity(Retirals) It is an annual component. 15 long time monthly basic per year. ? make hold out Allowance / Concession ( yearbook) Journey within India primarily by Rail 2nd A/c class for employee and his immediate family (spouse, children, parents, siblings). ? Gift Vouchers Non cash component, these coupon companies like Sodexho Pass provide attractive Gift Vouchers, which is given on Diwali Festival Occasion.For junior employees amount can be lower, for seniors, amount can be higher up to Rs. 5000 or so. PERQUISITES For Senior Management Employees only ? Rent Free Accommodation Income Tax do Taxable perquisite Value of rent put out accommodation is considered to be taxable for the period of house occupied is either of the following 10% of recompense (for tube-shaped social organisation cities) or (7. 5% for non metro cities) + Excess of Fair Rent Value ( commercialize rent) over 60% of salary (i. e. Market Rent 60% of salary) = organic taxable value of rent free accommodation ? Car (For personal) Owned by the EmployerIncome Tax effect Taxable Value includes the following Actual discharge Maintenance expenditure incurred by the employer + device drivers Salary + Depreciation any amount charged by employer to employee for personal use of the car. ? Employee Stock weft Plan Employee exercises the option plan by buying out the shares during the exercise period however tax liability occurs only when an employee sells the shares on the value of trade made under the Capital Gains head of income. OTHER BENEFITS ? Personal Accident Insurance Scheme (For employee only) Medical Insurance Scheme (For employee dependents which can be spouse,first both children, parents or in-laws (either of them) etc. ? Performance colligate insurance plan The Performance Linked Incentive Plan is found on employees Performance Ratings during the one-year Performance Appraisal Plan in the month of March / April each year. Each employee would be eligible for a performance base incentive plan based on following guidelines. Maximum Potential Incentives under PLIP will be 30% of Total Monthly Salary. OR up to Rs. 75000/- p. a. TATA MOTORS i) Gratuity The family has an obligation towards gratuity, a defined benefit retirement plan covering eligible employees. The plan provides for a lump sum payment to vested employees at retirement, termination while in employment or on termination of employment of an amount equivalent to 15 to 30 days salary due for each completed year of service. Vesting occurs upon completion of five dollar bill years of service. The come with makes annual contributions to gratuity fund established as faith. The attach to accounts for the liability for gratuity benefits payable in future based on an independent actuarial valuation. ii) Superannuation The Company has two superannuation plans, a defined benefit plan and a defined contribution plan. Employees who are members of the defined benefit superannuation plan are entitled to benefits depending on the years of service and salary drawn. The monthly pension benefits after retirement range from 0. 75% to 2% of the annual basic salary for each year of service. The Company accounts for the liability for superannuation benefits payable in future under the plan based on an independent actuarial valuation.With effect from April 1, 2003, this plan was amended and benefits earned by covered employees have been protect as at March 31, 2003. Employees covered by this plan are prospectively entitled to benefits computed on a behind that ensures that the annual cost of providing the pension benefits would not exceed 15% of salary. The Company maintains a separate irrevocable trust for employees covered and entitled to benefits. The Company contributes up to 15% of the eligible employees salary to the trust every year. The Company recognizes such contributions as an expense when incurred.The Company has no further obligation beyond this contribution. (iii) Bhavishya Kalyan Yojana (BKY) BKY is an unfunded defined benefit plan. The benefits of the plan settle to an eligible employee at the time of expiry or permanent disablement, while in service, either as a result of an injury or as certified by the Companys Medical Board. The monthly payment to dependents of the deceased / disabled employee under the plan equals 50% of the salary drawn at the time of death or accident or a specified amount, whichever is higher. The Company accounts for the liability for BKY benefits ayable in future based on an independent actuarial valuation. (iv) Post-retirement Medicare Scheme Under this scheme, employees get medical benefits subject to certain limits of amount, periods after retirement and types of benefits, depending on their grade and location at the time of retirement. Employees separated from the Company as part of Early disengagement Scheme, on medical grounds or due to pe rmanent disablement are also covered under the scheme. The liability for post-retirement medical scheme is based on an independent actuarial valuation. v) Provident Fund The eligible employees of the Company are entitled to receive benefits under the provident fund, a defined contribution plan, in which both employees and the Company make monthly contributions at a specified percentage of the covered employees salary (currently 12% of employees salary). The contributions as specified under the law are paid to the provident fund and pension fund set up as irrevocable trust by the Company or to respective Regional Provident Fund Commissioner and the Central Provident Fund under the State Pension scheme.The Company is generally liable for annual contributions and any shortfall in the fund assets based on the government specified minimum rates of return or pension and recognises such contributions and shortfall, if any, as an expense in the year incurred. (vi) Compensated absences The Company provides for the encashment of leave or leave with pay subject to certain rules. The employees are entitled to accumulate leave subject to certain limits, for future encashment. The liability is provided based on the number of days of unutilised leave at each eternal rest sheet date on the basis of an independent actuarial valuation.Some other benefits advanced to the permanent employees are ? Allowances like Transport allowance, Education allowance, Sanitation allowance, ? Leave and travel allowance etc. ? Annual Performance linked Payment ? Free Medical facility for family ? Company loans advances NOKIA Nokia is the world leader in mobility, campaign the transformation and growth of the converging mesh and communication industry. Nokia started its operations in India in 1995 and since then has played a pioneering role in the growth of cellular technology in India.Today it is the leading disgrace in the mobile devices market in India with one of the largest distributi on networks. COMPENSATION BENEFITS Nokias Total Compensation big money is tailored for each country. It typically consists of elements such as annual base salary, incentives, bonuses, possible stock options or performance shares, conciliative Work-Life labyrinthine sense solutions, and other local benefits. Nokia rewards employees for commodity performance, competence development, and for overall company success. This creates a positive and encouraging environment with opportunities for employees to optimize their potential and be rewarded fairly. Higher performance and contribution leads to higher rewards. The Nokia spheric market competitive rewards twist addresses the need for flexibility, personalization, empowerment and commitment. The basic salary is set to meet market conditions, the demands of the job and single(a) competence and performance. The shifting part may consist of incentives or bonuses and other compensation, such as overtime pay and call-out pay.Nok ia provides compensation on competitive basis it provides employees with market competitive rewards through a flexible global structure. The Compensation package consists the following ? Basic pay, equity bonuses and incentives ? Health and welfare benefits ? Vacation and time off The compensation also includes various benefits ? Insurance (healthcare and life) ? Transportation (free buses) ? gifts on special occasions (e. g. birthday, marriage) ? Relocation support (need based) ? Work related mobile phone ? Education assistance ? Creche support ? premium SystemShort-term incentive programs such as individual, team up, project/program incentives and the Nokia Connecting People Bonus allow Nokia to offer immediate rewards for employee and team achievements. Eligibility for an incentive, bonus or stock option plans is defined by the content and nature of each individuals job. Local Benefits Additional local rewards and benefits are also developed to complement the global programs a nd to ensure that the local market conditions are met. Annual Reviews -Nokia has implemented a global process, where the change in the pay level for each employee is based on the results of the annual performance review.Health -Nokias Work-Life balance solutions provide health benefits and local retirement benefits are tailored to individual needs according to factors such as tenure, contribution, performance, roles and responsibilities. Nokia offers services, programs and guidelines to support employees? possibilities to maintain work-life balance according to their changing needs and life situations. Typically they include teleworking, mobile working, flexible working hours, sabbaticals, study leaves, health care services as well as recreational activities and other activity clubs.Flexible Working -Depending on the situation and needs, flexible working solutions can provide alternative modes of working such as teleworking at home or at other locations (e. g. working at remote site s). Nokia provide employees with advanced(a) solutions aiming at having positive effects on the overall quality of life, job satisfaction and job performance. Flexi Time Depending on the local market conditions, employees may put on advantage of flexi time including flexible working hours and part-time working. Time Off- Nokia? s flexible working solutions include unpaid time off and sabbaticals.These solutions support Nokia? s philosophy of Employee Personal Growth and Self-management and modify employees to take extended leave from work. Health-care Services Nokia aims to maintain and improve the working environment and well-being of its employees by crack medical check-ups, counselling and insurance programs to the employees. Volunteering Nokias global volunteer program Nokia Helping Hands gives employees a chance to contribute their time and effort to worthy causes in their communities. Nokia employees can use 1-2 working days per year for Nokia Helping Hands volunteering .Other Services Sporting, social and cultural activities and workplace relationships are promoted within the company. These well-being services can also include wash service, cafeteria, take-away food, day care and on-site concierge services etc. CONCLUSION Each company is pioneer in their own way of producing their products and equally compensating the employees. TATA Motors, L&T and most companies have evolved from the traditional fixed pay and more and more covariant pay is introduced in every company. Nowadays we find that the variable component is quite large as compared to the fixed one.There are huge advantages due to a variable pay and fringe benefits which are as follows ? Employee answerableness ? Motivation to perform more ? Performance leading to rewards and recognition ? High self motivation to perform However, critics have argued that such a pay structure would always put huge loads of pressure on the employees and hence an employee is looked merely as a mould wit h no emotions. Some of the disadvantages may be as follows ? Increased stress levels due to heavy expectations ? Performance anxiety ? Employee worn-outThus the three manufacturing companies are equally good in compensating the employees. It should be noted that by giving only monetary benefits would not suffice the needs of the employees as not everyone is motivated only by money. Nokia has this ideology of overall growth of an individual which is the best way to compensate an employee. Thus the company should look after the overall growth of the individual and ordinate his career aims with the goals of the company. pic Personnel Identification, Participation and Stimulation Old Age and Retirement Health Protection Employment SecurityFringe BenefitsFringe Benefit meaning Any privilege, service, facility or amenity, directly or indirectly provided to employee by an employer Any reimbursement for any purpose . Contribution to approved superannuation fund The term Fringe benefit s refer to various extra benefits provided to the employees, in addition to the compensation paid in the form of wage or salary. These benefits can be defined as any wage cost not directly connected with the employees productive effort, performance, service or sacrifice.Different terms are used to denote fringe benefits. They are welfare measures, social charges, social security measures, supplements, sub-wages, employee benefits etc. In addition workers commonly receive such benefits as holiday with pay, low cost meals, low-rent housing etc. Such additions to the wage proper are sometimes referred to as fringe benefits. Benefits that have no relation to employment or wages should not be regarded as fringe benefits even though they may constitute a significant part of the workers total income.Thus, fringe benefits are those monetary and non-monetary benefits given to the employees during and post employment period which are connected with employment but not to the employees contribu tions to the organization. Coverage Fringe benefits covers bonus, social security measures, retirement benefits like provident fund, gratuity, pension, workmens compensation, housing, medical, canteen, co-operative credit, consumer stores, educational facilities, recreational facilities, financial advice and so on. OBJECTIVES OF FRINGE BENEFITS The important objectives of fringe benefits are 1.To create and improve sound industrial relations 2. To boost up employee morale. 3. To motivate the employees by identifying and satisfying their unsatisfied needs. 4. To provide qualitative work environment and work life. 5. To provide security to the employees against social risks like old age benefits and maternity benefits. 6. To protect the health of the employees and to provide safety to the employees against accidents. 7. To promote employees welfare by providing welfare measures like recreation facilities. 8. To create a sense of belongingness among employees and to retain them.Hence, fringe benefits are called golden hand-cuffs. 9. To meet requirements of various legislations relating to fringe benefits. NEED FOR EXTENDING FRINGE BENEFITS Most organisation have been extending the fringe to their employees, year after year, for the following reasons i) Rising prices and cost of living has brought about incessant demand for provision of extra benefit to the employees. (ii) Employers too have found that fringe benefits present attractive areas of negotiation when large wage and salary increases are not feasible. iii) As organizations have developed ore elaborate fringe benefits programs for their employees, greater pressure has been placed upon competing organizations to match these benefits in order to attract and keep employees. (iv)Recognition that fringe benefits are non-taxable rewards has been major stimulus to their expansion. v) The growing volume of labor legislation, particularly social security legislation, made it imperative for employers to share equal ly with their employees the cost of old age, survivor and disability benefits. vi) The growth and strength of trade unions has substantially influenced the growth of company benefits and services. (vii) The management has increasingly realized its responsibility towards its employees and has come to the conclusion that the benefits of increase in productivity resulting from increasing industrialization should go, at least partly, to the employees who are responsible for it, so that they may be protected against the insecurity arising from unemployment, sickness, injury and old age. Company benefits-and-services programs are among some of the mechanisms which managers use to supply this security.TYPES OF FRINGE BENEFITS Organizations provide a variety of fringe benefits. The fringe benefits are classified under four heads as given here under pic 1. For Employment Security Benefits under this head include unemployment, insurance, technological adjustment pay, leave travel pay, overti me pay, level for negotiation, leave for maternity, leave for grievances, holidays, cost of living bonus, call-back pay, lay-off, retiring rooms, jobs to the sons/daughters of the employees and the like. 2. For Health ProtectionBenefits under this head include accident insurance, disability insurance, health insurance, hospitalization, life insurance, medical care, sick benefits, sick leave, etc. 3. For Old Age and Retirement Benefits under this category include deferred income plans, pension, gratuity, provident fund, old age assistance, old age counseling , medical benefits for retired employees, traveling concession to retired employees, jobs to sons/daughters of the deceased employee and the like. 4. For Personnel Identification, Participation and Stimulation This category overs the following benefits anniversary awards, attendance bonus, canteen, cooperative credit societies, educational facilities, beauty parlor services, housing, income tax aid, counseling, quality bonus, rec reational programs, stress counseling, safety measures etc. CLASSIFICATION OF FRINGE BENEFITS 1. PAYEMENT FOR TIME NOT WORKED-Benefits under this category include sick leave with pay, vacation pay, paid rest and relief time, paid lunch periods, grievance time, bargaining time, travel time etc. 2.EXTRA TIME FOR TIME WORKED-This category covers benefits such as premium pay, incentive bonus, shift premium, old age insurance, profit sharing, unemployment compensation, deewali or pooja bonus, food cost subsidy, housing subsidy, recreation etc. 3. EMPLOYEE SECURITY-Provided with the benefits of confirmation of the employee on the job creates a sense of job security. Further, a minimum and continuous wage or salary gives a sense of security to life. 4. SAFETY AND HEALTH-In India, the Factories Act, 1948, stipulated certain requirements regarding working conditions with a view to providing a safe working environment.FRINGE BENEFITS IN A MANUFACTURING FIRM To study the fringe benefits provid ed to employees particularly in a manufacturing concern , lets look at some of the major manufacturing companies. These are i) Larsen and Toubro iii)Nokia ii)Mahindra and Mahindra iv)Tata Motors LARSEN AND TOUBRO The governing theme in this organisation is the well being of employees. The salary and benefits offered are on par with the best available in Construction Industry.A few important perquisites & welfare schemes are highlighted below Special Facilities for Site employees are provided. These special facilities include ? Subsidized accommodation, ? Part furnishing of accommodation provided ? Free transport facilities for work. ? Special Medical Insurance Scheme This scheme is in addition to other medical benefits available to employees. Employees have the option of covering their parents, aged upto 85 years under this scheme. ? Retirement Benefits All staff members are covered under Provident Fund and Gratuity Scheme. L&T Institute of Technology, Mumbai is an exclusive facil ity for L&T employees children. -The Institute conducts four-year industry-integrated diploma courses in Mechanical Engineering and Electronics Engineering. On successful course completion, students are awarded diplomas by the Directorate of Technical Education, Maharashtra to which LTIT is affiliated. Prize Money for Academic Achievement To acknowledge and motivate meritorious wards of employees, the Welfare Department of LT presents cash awards to students who have scored high percentage marks. There are several additional benefits at Managerial Levels.Several attractive benefits are available including ? Provision of company car, ? Loans for furniture, housing ? Children higher education ? Purchase of Personal Computer, ? Membership of Superannuation scheme ? Reimbursement of expenses on club membership MAHINDRA AND MAHINDRA COMPENSATION RULES AND DESIGN GUIDELINES Monthly Components Guidelines ? Basic Minimum Basic figure for skilled, semi skilled and un skilled employees is a m inimum of Rs. 2650, 2950 and 3250/-. However on the safer side, Basic figure less is not less than Rs. 3500/- p. m. Income Tax Benefit NIL House Rent Allowance (HRA) Maximum 50% basic (Metro cities) 40% basic (non metro cities).Income Tax Benefit Excess of Actual rent paid over 10% of Basic salary OR Maximum HRA allowed (50% or 60% of basic) OR Actual Rent Paid whichever is lower is Exempt from Tax. ? Transport Allowance Conveyance allowance meant for transportation between office and residence only. Income Tax Benefit Exempt maximum up to Rs. 800/- per month. No proof required. ? Childrens education allowance Income Tax Benefit Rs. 100 per child subject to max 2 children. Hence maximum Rs. 200/- is exempt Special Allowance Balancing figure after choosing all the above components with respect to their maximum limits absorbed, remaining amount can be named as Special Allowance. It is fully taxable. ? Medical Reimbursements Pay against medical bills Income Tax Benefit Maximum Rs. 12 50/- p. m. (Rs. 15000 p. a. ) is exempt only if Original Bills are provided ? Food Coupons Non cash component, exempt up to Rs. 1000/- p. m. ? Provident Fund (Retrials) Employers contribution (this is given to RPFC directly. However employees contribution is deducted from his Monthly salary above and sent to RPFC.Hence total deduction works out to be 12+12 = 24% of Basic. Income Tax Benefit Employees contribution of 12% is eligible for Deduction from Taxable income. It can be treated as exempt investment. ? Gratuity(Retirals) It is an annual component. 15 days monthly basic per year. ? Leave Travel Allowance / Concession (Annual) Journey within India primarily by Rail 2nd A/c class for employee and his immediate family (spouse, children, parents, siblings). ? Gift Vouchers Non cash component, these coupon companies like Sodexho Pass provide attractive Gift Vouchers, which is given on Diwali Festival Occasion.For junior employees amount can be lower, for seniors, amount can be highe r up to Rs. 5000 or so. PERQUISITES For Senior Management Employees only ? Rent Free Accommodation Income Tax effect Taxable perquisite Value of rent free accommodation is considered to be taxable for the period of house occupied is either of the following 10% of Salary (for metro cities) or (7. 5% for non metro cities) + Excess of Fair Rent Value (market rent) over 60% of salary (i. e. Market Rent 60% of salary) = Total taxable value of rent free accommodation ? Car (For personal) Owned by the EmployerIncome Tax effect Taxable Value includes the following Actual Running Maintenance expenditure incurred by the employer + Drivers Salary + Depreciation any amount charged by employer to employee for personal use of the car. ? Employee Stock Option Plan Employee exercises the option plan by buying out the shares during the exercise period however tax liability occurs only when an employee sells the shares on the value of sale made under the Capital Gains head of income. OTHER BENE FITS ? Personal Accident Insurance Scheme (For employee only) Medical Insurance Scheme (For employee dependents which can be spouse,first two children, parents or in-laws (either of them) etc. ? Performance linked insurance plan The Performance Linked Incentive Plan is based on employees Performance Ratings during the Annual Performance Appraisal Plan in the month of March / April each year. Each employee would be eligible for a performance based incentive plan based on following guidelines. Maximum Potential Incentives under PLIP will be 30% of Total Monthly Salary. OR up to Rs. 75000/- p. a. TATA MOTORS i) Gratuity The Company has an obligation towards gratuity, a defined benefit retirement plan covering eligible employees. The plan provides for a lump sum payment to vested employees at retirement, death while in employment or on termination of employment of an amount equivalent to 15 to 30 days salary payable for each completed year of service. Vesting occurs upon completion o f five years of service. The Company makes annual contributions to gratuity fund established as trust. The Company accounts for the liability for gratuity benefits payable in future based on an independent actuarial valuation. ii) Superannuation The Company has two superannuation plans, a defined benefit plan and a defined contribution plan. Employees who are members of the defined benefit superannuation plan are entitled to benefits depending on the years of service and salary drawn. The monthly pension benefits after retirement range from 0. 75% to 2% of the annual basic salary for each year of service. The Company accounts for the liability for superannuation benefits payable in future under the plan based on an independent actuarial valuation.With effect from April 1, 2003, this plan was amended and benefits earned by covered employees have been protected as at March 31, 2003. Employees covered by this plan are prospectively entitled to benefits computed on a basis that ensures that the annual cost of providing the pension benefits would not exceed 15% of salary. The Company maintains a separate irrevocable trust for employees covered and entitled to benefits. The Company contributes up to 15% of the eligible employees salary to the trust every year. The Company recognizes such contributions as an expense when incurred.The Company has no further obligation beyond this contribution. (iii) Bhavishya Kalyan Yojana (BKY) BKY is an unfunded defined benefit plan. The benefits of the plan accrue to an eligible employee at the time of death or permanent disablement, while in service, either as a result of an injury or as certified by the Companys Medical Board. The monthly payment to dependents of the deceased / disabled employee under the plan equals 50% of the salary drawn at the time of death or accident or a specified amount, whichever is higher. The Company accounts for the liability for BKY benefits ayable in future based on an independent actuarial valuati on. (iv) Post-retirement Medicare Scheme Under this scheme, employees get medical benefits subject to certain limits of amount, periods after retirement and types of benefits, depending on their grade and location at the time of retirement. Employees separated from the Company as part of Early Separation Scheme, on medical grounds or due to permanent disablement are also covered under the scheme. The liability for post-retirement medical scheme is based on an independent actuarial valuation. v) Provident Fund The eligible employees of the Company are entitled to receive benefits under the provident fund, a defined contribution plan, in which both employees and the Company make monthly contributions at a specified percentage of the covered employees salary (currently 12% of employees salary). The contributions as specified under the law are paid to the provident fund and pension fund set up as irrevocable trust by the Company or to respective Regional Provident Fund Commissioner an d the Central Provident Fund under the State Pension scheme.The Company is generally liable for annual contributions and any shortfall in the fund assets based on the government specified minimum rates of return or pension and recognises such contributions and shortfall, if any, as an expense in the year incurred. (vi) Compensated absences The Company provides for the encashment of leave or leave with pay subject to certain rules. The employees are entitled to accumulate leave subject to certain limits, for future encashment. The liability is provided based on the number of days of unutilised leave at each balance sheet date on the basis of an independent actuarial valuation.Some other benefits advanced to the permanent employees are ? Allowances like Transport allowance, Education allowance, Sanitation allowance, ? Leave and travel allowance etc. ? Annual Performance linked Payment ? Free Medical facility for family ? Company loans advances NOKIA Nokia is the world leader in mobi lity, driving the transformation and growth of the converging internet and communication industry. Nokia started its operations in India in 1995 and since then has played a pioneering role in the growth of cellular technology in India.Today it is the leading brand in the mobile devices market in India with one of the largest distribution networks. COMPENSATION BENEFITS Nokias Total Compensation Package is tailored for each country. It typically consists of elements such as annual base salary, incentives, bonuses, possible stock options or performance shares, flexible Work-Life balance solutions, and other local benefits. Nokia rewards employees for good performance, competence development, and for overall company success. This creates a positive and encouraging environment with opportunities for employees to optimize their potential and be rewarded fairly. Higher performance and contribution leads to higher rewards. The Nokia global market competitive rewards structure addresse s the need for flexibility, personalization, empowerment and commitment. The basic salary is set to meet market conditions, the demands of the job and individual competence and performance. The variable part may consist of incentives or bonuses and other compensation, such as overtime pay and call-out pay.Nokia provides compensation on competitive basis it provides employees with market competitive rewards through a flexible global structure. The Compensation package consists the following ? Basic pay, equity bonuses and incentives ? Health and welfare benefits ? Vacation and time off The compensation also includes various benefits ? Insurance (healthcare and life) ? Transportation (free buses) ? gifts on special occasions (e. g. birthday, marriage) ? Relocation support (need based) ? Work related mobile phone ? Education assistance ? Creche support ? Bonus SystemShort-term incentive programs such as individual, team, project/program incentives and the Nokia Connecting People Bonus allow Nokia to offer immediate rewards for employee and team achievements. Eligibility for an incentive, bonus or stock option plans is defined by the content and nature of each individuals job. Local Benefits Additional local rewards and benefits are also developed to complement the global programs and to ensure that the local market conditions are met. Annual Reviews -Nokia has implemented a global process, where the change in the pay level for each employee is based on the results of the annual performance review.Health -Nokias Work-Life balance solutions provide health benefits and local retirement benefits are tailored to individual needs according to factors such as tenure, contribution, performance, roles and responsibilities. Nokia offers services, programs and guidelines to support employees? possibilities to maintain work-life balance according to their changing needs and life situations. Typically they include teleworking, mobile working, flexible working hours, sabbatic als, study leaves, health care services as well as recreational activities and other activity clubs.Flexible Working -Depending on the situation and needs, flexible working solutions can provide alternative modes of working such as teleworking at home or at other locations (e. g. working at remote sites). Nokia provide employees with innovative solutions aiming at having positive effects on the overall quality of life, job satisfaction and job performance. Flexi Time Depending on the local market conditions, employees may take advantage of flexi time including flexible working hours and part-time working. Time Off- Nokia? s flexible working solutions include unpaid time off and sabbaticals.These solutions support Nokia? s philosophy of Employee Personal Growth and Self-management and enable employees to take extended leave from work. Health-care Services Nokia aims to maintain and improve the working environment and well-being of its employees by offering medical check-ups, counse lling and insurance programs to the employees. Volunteering Nokias global volunteer program Nokia Helping Hands gives employees a chance to contribute their time and effort to worthy causes in their communities. Nokia employees can use 1-2 working days per year for Nokia Helping Hands volunteering.Other Services Sporting, social and cultural activities and workplace relationships are promoted within the company. These well-being services can also include laundry service, cafeteria, take-away food, day care and on-site concierge services etc. CONCLUSION Each company is pioneer in their own way of producing their products and equally compensating the employees. TATA Motors, L&T and most companies have evolved from the traditional fixed pay and more and more variable pay is introduced in every company. Nowadays we find that the variable component is quite large as compared to the fixed one.There are huge advantages due to a variable pay and fringe benefits which are as follows ? Empl oyee accountability ? Motivation to perform more ? Performance leading to rewards and recognition ? High self motivation to perform However, critics have argued that such a pay structure would always put huge loads of pressure on the employees and hence an employee is looked merely as a machine with no emotions. Some of the disadvantages may be as follows ? Increased stress levels due to heavy expectations ? Performance anxiety ? Employee worn-outThus the three manufacturing companies are equally good in compensating the employees. It should be noted that by giving only monetary benefits would not suffice the needs of the employees as not everyone is motivated only by money. Nokia has this ideology of overall growth of an individual which is the best way to compensate an employee. Thus the company should look after the overall growth of the individual and align his career aims with the goals of the company. pic Personnel Identification, Participation and Stimulation Old Age and Ret irement Health Protection Employment Security

Monday, May 20, 2019

Moral nihilism Essay

When determining the status of chasteity at that place is trey different options. cleanity whitethorn be the different between objectives, relativistic, or it may be a complex set of rules. virtuous nihilists argon like relativists by denying ethical objectivism however, relativists come back in virtuous goodness, duty and virtue and nihilists striket. fault theorists and expressivism argon both forms of moral nihilism. hallucination theorists gestate our moral judgments atomic number 18 always chimerical. Expressivists dont view as and also deny that our moral claims can ever offer an ideal take on reality. (307)Error theory and expressivism are two forms of moral nihilism. Error theorists intend our moral judgments are always mistaken. (307) While expressivists deny those beliefs and deny, that our moral claims can never offer an precise take on reality. (307) The misconduct theory is made of three doubts/claims. The first is there are no moral features in this wo rld. Error theorists believe that nothing is mor exclusivelyy good or bad, or right and wrong. Exemplified in the book many scientific qualities in the world (liquids, being three feet long, carbon based chemicals) but none of them contain moral features.The next doubt of error theorists is no moral judgments are true. There are no moral facts so authoritative statements made cannot be true. The 3rd corresponds to the second doubt, our sincere moral judgments try, but always fail, to describe the moral features of things. Since there are no moral truths for moral decisions, all of our moral claims are mistaken. These three principles used by error theorists lead to the destination of no moral knowledge. The fourth claim counteracts and answers the third point. There is no moral knowledge when means knowledge requires truth.(307) If no moral truths are given there can be no moral knowledge. Error theorists want it to be know that all moral thoughts are wrong. They believe that mor al thoughts are not believable and volume who believe in them are lies. Error theorists substructure by there main point morality is nothing but a fiction. Error theorists are kind of like atheists. The example in the book is error theory is to morality as atheism is to religion. They both deny truths of widely populate views. Atheists dont believe in deity yet a very large percent of the population believes in god even if there are many different gods.Error theorists deny morality even though many people live life off of their moral beliefs. You can hold of atheists are error theorists about religion. Atheists think there are no religious beliefs in the world and when religious people try to preach, atheists believe they never speak the truth about god. Error theorists bemuse agreed that the main distrust of morality is the assumption of objective moral beliefs. These beliefs supply us with an excellent reason for obedience, regardless of what we do by about. (309) Morality is objective and provides the ones who believe in morality with categorical reasons.If you dont agree with categorical reasons wherefore this plants error theorists true that there is no such thing as morality. To prove that error theorists are right they have to convince people of how they came out with the thought that morality is a lie. Error theorists must first prove that morality is a commitment to categorical reasons. If morality doesnt rely on these and they can prove a different way to live off of moral reasonings, then error theorist are wrong. The second point is that error theorists must point that at least of the moral assumptions are false.Its good that many people havent comprehend of the error theory because if error theorists can prove the moral theory wrong, there would be untellable results. People would now believe they have been living a lie their entire life. If morality is prove wrong, people will do whatever they want and everyone will soon go crazy. If error theorists are correct, they must defend themselves that morality is objective. Expressivism is like error theory with a few changes in certain places. Expressivists accept the first two beliefs of error theorists. The first there are no moral features in this world. The second belief no moral judgments are true.The beliefs that separates error theory and expressivism that expressivists think they are not trying to speak the truth while making moral judgments. Error theorists believe our sincere moral judgments try and always fail to describe the moral features of things. (312) Expressivists vent their emotions and are known to make former(a)s act certain ways by making a plan of action. Expressivists want to have confidence in morality while also denying ethical objectivity. Expressivists say moral claims cannot be true, then this makes it very difficult to understand how moral argument is possible.An argument to this theory is that a conclusion must be true provided that its premises are true. My opinion would be that expressivists theory cannot be true. The other claims they make cant be used. If the first two parts are true then the third cannot be true. If the two parts of the argument are true the conclusion will be as well. Expressivists warn to not be fooled by the superficial similarity between factual claims and moral ones. (315) Moral claims are known as nihilism that would meanMoral claims are nothing essentially. They express our in-person feelings. Thats how expressivists express peoples moral judgments.Concluding with all that I have wise(p) with the different theories and morality. Morality is a set of objective tasks and rules to oblige by, giving us specific reasons to do everything that we do. Error theorists believe there is no such thing as morality. Moral beliefs are all lies in other words.They think out moral thinking is about assumptions in our head that is a lie. Expressivists are the same as error theorists and believe that d enying moral duties supply us with categorical reasons. (317) Error theorists believe morality is all fake in peoples heads. I believe with the error theorists about morality.

Sunday, May 19, 2019

Personal Goals HCS/301

Personal Goals HCS/301 February 14, 2011 vellicate In this paper I will discuss my personal goals that I have reached and pass over to attain for. With that being said, I have many accomplishments such as volunteer work, maintaining my family, learning untried nursing positions, overcoming my personal wellness issues, and committing myself to return for a higher education and further flight development. Having been in the medical checkup field for over twenty old age, I have seen many advances in healthcargon.With the changing medical trading I have come to the realization in order to understand the different aspects of nursing, it is crucial for me to hold out to strive towards new goals in my nursing profession. My goals have made an impact on my nursing career and the various paths I have challenged, I have come to recognize the importance of understanding that with companionship and wisdom I have grown in my experiences. Personal Goals Growing up as an tho child, I re alized at a juvenile age that I had many opport social unities to explore.When I was young I perpetually put others first-year. I spent many hours with family ingredients whom were nurses. I admired them for their dedication to the health and well being of others. Having been shown lots of love and commitment throughout my life is the reason why I decided to help others. When I was fifteen I began volunteering at my local community hospital. This hospital is where I remain working today. As a child, I chose to work towards a career in nursing. My first goal I chose was to be a volunteer at the hospital.This was the beginning of my commitments to the community. According to The Journal of educational Psychology, there are Mastery goals and Performance goals. Mastery goals are motivated through individual confide while murder goals are concerned with appearing capable and competitive to others (Educational Psychology, 2006, p. 354). Performance goals apply to me because I have t he influence and motivation of my family. Through many experiences I have found that personal goals are achievable. All you need is hard work and determination.This often requires an increased workload, which leads to increased stress. Keeping these thoughts in disposition can help me achieve my short and long-term goals. Goals to me range from high priority to low priority. With my chronic desire for a higher education this is where I am today. I have chosen to heed The University of Phoenix for a Bachelor of Science degree in breast feeding. Short-term goals for me begin with getting though my daily tasks. I have found that keeping a planner is a valuable beam of light this helps me with my duration management and prioritizes my short-term goals.As a Registered Nurse working full-time with a family of five, planning is always necessary to keep my life manageable. Getting though household duties, bills, school, homework and baseball practices can set out overwhelming. The th ought of having enough time to cook or even enjoy meals seems impossible. Unfortunately, I have been donjon with Systemic Lupus for the last six years, which has consisted of endless doctor appointments and lab work. This has been a tremendous journey for my family and I. My goals during this time have been to decrease stress and improve my health through exercise and meditation.Ultimately, I wishing to continue to maintain lower levels of stress and achieve an optimal health level to reach my goals. Twenty years ago I graduated from Golden West Community College with my Associate Degree in Nursing. This was rather a struggle and an overwhelming experience for me. My family was young and there were many countless tiring hours compound in order to achieve my goal of becoming a Registered Nurse. Becoming a registered nurse was a great milestone and an amazing accomplishment for me. Graduating from college was a step towards my personal devotion to my future patients.Upon finale o f my Associate Degree in Nursing, I was hired as Registered Nurse in the Medical/ surgical unit. After several months as a practicing nurse, my manager encouraged me to take the opportunity to become a charge nurse. This was an ambition of mine from the beginning. I knew I had the abilities to take charge and lead a team. With the fellowship and strengths of my senior nurses, I began to develop my leadership skills. Listening and participating as a team member helped me learn from my fellow nurses as they shared their experiences with me.I was never too proud to listen or learn. I have continued to remain this way throughout my nursing career. This has been beneficial to me because I can lead and listen to a team. From the beginning I realized that the key elements were communication and teamwork. My goals increased from there, and I knew I had to take further classes in order to develop my skills. I became certified in Advanced restricted Life Support and Pediatric Advanced Life Support, and after trine years of this experience my attached goal was to advance into Pediatric nursing.I was offered a job on a Pediatric Oncology floor at Loma Linda University Medical Center, Childrens Hospital. I became chemo certified and began working with pediatric cancer patients. I challenged myself into working in critical care pediatric oncology. This was an extremely emotional experience in my nursing career. Having stayed on that unit for four and a half years, I was ambitious for a new goal. I ventured out for a new experience and applied for a recovery room nurse position at Placentia Linda Hospital. objet dart working in the recovery room, I then trained to become an operating room nurse.My leadership and organizational skills became apparent I was then promoted into a charge nurse position. I continued to want to learn more about leadership so I took a position as an attendant administrator at a new non-established surgery center. This goal was by far the most arouse for me. It showed me another component of nursing and leadership. As, Ivey Business Journal described, the purpose of learning a goal is to contract ones imagination, to engage in discovery and to Think outside of the box (Ivey Business Journal, 2006, p. 1).Not alone did I have to think about ideal patient care, I had to be a film director of a team, deal with finances, and be in direct line of fire of the physicians who owned the facility. After three and a half years of growing and expanding my knowledge of administration, as well as being a patient care advocate, my appreciation for my profession has grown fonder and I am ready to pursue a higher level of management. Eventually, I would like to become a director of surgery services. This will accord me to become part of a planning team, decrease my stress level, and provide a better feature of life for my family and myself.In conclusion, I have come to realize that the profession I have chosen has precondition me a great sense of pride. I have accomplished many goals thus far in my nursing career, but looking forward to achieving more. I started out as a volunteer, and eventually became a charge nurse where I continue to excel. Rogers (2007) stated, Even if youre on the right track, youll get flux over if you just sit there (p. 95). I have chosen to continue challenging myself in my career by developing new ways to lead, manage, and listen to my peers. The commitment to extend my education has brought new goals.These goals include receiving my Bachelor of Science degree in Nursing and to continue developing new strategies to provoke my abilities as a team leader and further advance to a director position. References Mestas, M. , Urdan, T. (2006). The goals behind performance goals. The Journal of Educational Psychology,Vol. 98(2), 354-365. Latham, G. , Seijts, G. P. (2006). Learning goals or performing goals Is it the journey or the destination? Ivey Business Journal, Vol. 70(5), 1-6. Bishop , J. , Carter, C. , Katz, J. R. , Lyman, S. (2006). Values, Goals,Time, and Stress. The Keys to Nursing Success, 95.