Saturday, September 14, 2019

Timeline of Education

Time Line of Education History of American Education Edu 324 Hernandez Karen Lane 4 March 2013 1647 The General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony decrees that every town of fifty families should have an elementary school and that every town of 100 families should have a Latin school. The goal is to ensure that Puritan children learn to read the Bible and receive basic information about their Calvinist religion. 1779 Thomas Jefferson proposes a two-track educational system, with different tracks in his words for â€Å"the laboring and the learned. Scholarship would allow a very few of the laboring class to advance, Jefferson says, by â€Å"raking a few geniuses from the rubbish. † 1785 The Continental Congress passes a law calling for a survey of the â€Å"Northwest Territory† which included what was to become the state of Ohio. The law created â€Å"townships,† reserving a portion of each township for a local school. From these â€Å"land grants† even tually came the U. S. system of â€Å"land grant universities,† the state public universities that exist today. 1790Pennsylvania state constitution calls for free public education but only for poor children. It is expected that rich people will pay for their children's schooling. 1805 New York Public School Society formed by wealthy businessmen to provide education for poor children. Schools are run on the â€Å"Lancasterian† model, in which one â€Å"master† can teach hundreds of students in a single room. The master gives a rote lesson to the older students, who then pass it down to the younger students. These schools emphasize discipline and obedience qualities that factory owners want in their workers. 817 A petition presented in the Boston Town Meeting calls for establishing of a system of free public primary schools. Main support comes from local merchants, businessmen and wealthier artisans. Many wage earners oppose it, because they don't want to pay the taxes. 1820 First public high school in the U. S. , Boston English, opens. 1827 Massachusetts passes a law making all grades of public school open to all pupils free of charge. 1830s By this time, most southern states have laws forbidding teaching people in slavery to read.Even so, around 5 percent become literate at great personal risk. 1820-1860 3. 1 million immigrants arrive a number equal to one eighth of the entire U. S. population. Owners of industry needed a docile, obedient workforce and look to public schools to provide it. 1837 Horace Mann becomes head of the newly formed Massachusetts State Board of Education. Edmund Dwight, a major industrialist, thinks a state board of education was so important to factory owners that he offered to supplement the state salary with extra money of his own. 840s Over a million Irish immigrants arrive in the United States. Irish Catholics in New York City struggle for local neighborhood control of schools as a way of preventing their childr en from being force-fed a Protestant curriculum. 1848 Massachusetts Reform School at Westboro opens, where children who have refused to attend public schools are sent. This begins a long tradition of â€Å"reform schools,† which combine the education and juvenile justice systems. 1851 State of Massachusetts passes first its compulsory education law.The goal is to make sure that the children of poor immigrants get â€Å"civilized† and learn obedience and restraint, so they make good workers and don't contribute to social upheaval. 1865-1877 African Americans mobilize to bring public education to the South for the first time. After the Civil War, and with the legal end of slavery, African Americans in the South make alliances with white Republicans to push for many political changes, including for the first time rewriting state constitutions to guarantee free public education.In practice, white children benefit more than Black children. 1893-1913 Size of school boards in the country's 28 biggest cities is cut in half. Most local district (or â€Å"ward†) based positions are eliminated, in favor of city-wide elections. This means that local immigrant communities lose control of their local schools. Makeup of school boards changes from small local businessmen and some wage earners to professionals (like doctors and lawyers), big businessmen and other members of the richest classes. 1896 Plessy v.Ferguson decision. The U. S. Supreme Court rules that the state of Louisiana has the right to require â€Å"separate but equal† railroad cars for Blacks and whites. This decision means that the federal government officially recognizes segregation as legal. One result is that southern states pass laws requiring racial segregation in public schools. 1905 The U. S. Supreme Court requires California to extend public education to the children of Chinese immigrants. 1917 Smith-Hughes Act passes, providing federal funding for vocational education.Big m anufacturing corporations push this, because they want to remove job skill training from the apprenticeship programs of trade unions and bring it under their own control. 1924 An act of Congress makes Native Americans U. S. citizens for the first time. 1930-1950 The NAACP brings a series of suits over unequal teachers' pay for Blacks and whites in southern states. At the same time, southern states realize they are losing African American labor to the northern cities. These two sources of pressure resulted in some increase of spending on Black schools in the South. 1932A survey of 150 school districts reveals that three quarters of them are using so-called intelligence testing to place students in different academic tracks. 1945 At the end of World War 2, the G. I. Bill of Rights gives thousands of working class men college scholarships for the first time in U. S. history. 1948 Educational Testing Service is formed, merging the College Entrance Examination Board, the Cooperative Test Service, the Graduate Records Office, the National Committee on Teachers Examinations and others, with huge grants from the Rockefeller and Carnegie foundations.These testing services continued the work of eugenicists like Carl Brigham (originator of the SAT) who did research â€Å"proving† that immigrants were feeble-minded. 1954 Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka. The Supreme Court unanimously agrees that segregated schools are â€Å"inherently unequal† and must be abolished. Almost 45 years later in 1998, schools, especially in the north, are as segregated as ever. 1957 A federal court orders integration of Little Rock, Arkansas public schools. Governor Orval Faubus sends his National Guard to physically prevent nine African American students from enrolling at all-white Central High School.Reluctantly, President Eisenhower sends federal troops to enforce the court order not because he supports desegregation, but because he can't let a state governor use military power to defy the U. S. federal government. 1968 African American parents and white teachers clash in the Ocean Hill-Brownsville area of New York City, over the issue of community control of the schools. Teachers go on strike, and the community organizes freedom schools while the public schools are closed. 1974 Milliken v. Bradley. A Supreme Court made up of Richard Nixon‘s appointees rules that schools may not be desegregated across school districts.This effectively legally segregates students of color in inner-city districts from white students in wealthier white suburban districts. Late 1970s The so-called â€Å"taxpayers' revolt† leads to the passage of Proposition 13 in California, and copy-cat measures like Proposition 2-1/2 in Massachusetts. These propositions freeze property taxes, which are a major source of funding for public schools. As a result, in twenty years California drops from first in the nation in per-student spending in 1978 to number 43 in 1998. 1 980sThe federal Tribal Colleges Act establishes a community college on every Indian reservation, which allows young people to go to college without leaving their families. 1994 Proposition 187 passes in California, making it illegal for children of undocumented immigrants to attend public school. Federal courts hold Proposition 187 unconstitutional, but anti-immigrant feeling spreads across the country. Resources: Applied Research Center 2012, Historical Timeline of Public Education in the US Retrieved from: http://www. arc. rg/content/view/100/217/ Gaither, M. 2011 History of American Education Chapters two through eight of book Retrieved from https://content. ashford. edu/books/AUHIS324. 11. 1/ Morgan A Time Rime, Influential Events in the History of American Education Retrieved from: http://timerime. com/en/event/1386863/Latin+Grammar+School/ Sass, Edmund @ College of Saint Benedict/Saint John's University American Educational History: A Hypertext Timeline 2013 Retrieved from: ht tp://www. eds-resources. com/educationhistorytimeline. html

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