Wednesday, November 27, 2019
Beauty and Body Image in the Media Essays Beauty and Body Image in the Media Essay Beauty and Body Image in the Media Essay Review Of Literature Beauty and Body Image in the Media ( Men ) Review Ã¢â¬â 1 From the , Journal of Marketing Communication Vol. 11. No. 1. 3-19. March 2005 Idealized images of the male body in advertising: a reader-response exploration BY- RICHARD ELLIOTT CHRISTINE ELLIOTT Warwick Business School. University of Warwick, Coventry. UK. Harris Manchester College University of Oxford. Oxford. UK Introduction : This is a study which particularly focuses on how men are being portrayed in advertisements This study has used an interpretative methodology for exploring mens reactions to the representation of male bodies in advertising, particularly when men are portrayed in a sexual or naked pose and complimented past studies by investigating whether or not men felt that they were being objectified or exploited in advertising in the same manner as critical and feminist literature has suggested in relation to women. The extent to which men felt that the representation of idealized male images in advertising had an adverse effect on their self-image and self-esteem is discussed. Emergent interpretive themes include homophobia, gender stereotyping and the legitimization of the exploitation and use of sexuality in marketing. This study set out to explore the extent to which men may be similarly negatively affected by idealized representation of male bodies and the ways in which they negotiate the meaning of representations and their coping strategies for any emotional disturbance. Representations of the Male Body in Advertising : The researchers have focused on how men are portrayed in advertisements , and they have collected responses from many other researchers . All these researchers have commonly said that , men have become more preoccupied with muscularity because it is still perceived as a cultural symbol of masculinity. Men are developing an Adonis complex and eating disorders after being overexposed to idealized and unattainable male bodies in advertising. Since the I980Ã¢â¬â¢s mens bodies have appeared more frequently in advertising, offering a similarly idealized body to that presented to women. An increasing number of advertisements are showing men as sex objects . These researchers have conducted many studies which showed how are men are portrayed in the advertisements . Kolbe and Albanese a researcher has conducted a content analysis of sole male images in mens magazines and found that the majority of the bodies in advertising were not ordinary, but those of strong and hard male icons . His study says that men were usually represented in an objectified and depersonalized manner in advertising. Pope et al another undertook a study of male body obsession and found that advertisements for everything from cars to underwear were using body-builder images with washboard abdominal muscles, massive chests. nd inflated shoulderÃ¢â¬â¢s. a combination of muscularity and leanness probably achievable only by drugs. A study by Patterson another researcher also identified a relatively uniform depiction of male bodies within lifestyle magazines, where the audience was routinely presented with mesomorphic (strong, muscular and hard) male bodies that were hyper-masculine in their iconography. The depiction of ectomorphs (thin and lightly muscled) was limited mainly to the advertising of clothing where products may look more attractive on the slimmer, taller man. Endomorphs (soft and round) were rarely used and, where they were, tended to be the object of humour. Moreover, Patterson and England (2000) indicated that representations of male bodies were often used irrespective of whether they were relevant to the product category being advertised. Mens Responses to Representations of the Male Body : Researchers Kimmel and Tissier-Desbordes had conducted a study with 30 French men in order to determine whether brands and consumption played an important part in their lives. The study has suggested that men were uncomfortable with products that presented men as feminine. Their study explored mens relations to products and masculinity in general, but was not related to body image and provided only limited insight into mens reactions to advertisements. To date then, very little is known about how men react emotionally to the portrayal of male bodies in advertising. There is a suggestion that some of the men in the study by Researchers Kimmel and Tissier-Desbordes demonstrated a fear of admitting a feminine side to their self-image . Methodology of the research : In order to do a study of portrayal of men in advertising these researches have done this research with Two main research questions 1. How do young men respond to the representation of male bodies in advertising, particularly when men are portrayed in a sexual or naked pose? 2. How do young men negotiate the sexual meaning of advertising images in a social setting? setting? One-one interview They researchers had conducted this one to one interview because, they have said that the one-to-one in terviews would allow trust to be established and allow the exploration of underlying motivations, beliefs, attitudes and feelings . The researches had conducted twelve in-depth interviews, which ranged from 40 minutes to 2 hours in length. The ages of the respondents varied from 18 to 31 years, with the majority of respondents being in their early twenties. The interviews were audio-laped and transcribed for analysis. The researches had also collected 25 advertisements from major mens lifestyle magazines five advertisements were chosen as stimulus material so as to allow the examination of responses to different advertisements and different body types. Focus groups The focus groups were used for studying whether the male respondents would alter their responses to the advertisements when in a peer group environment. The number of participants in the focus groups varied from five to eight men with the same age spread as in the individual interviews. Conclusion: This study was based on menÃ¢â¬â¢s portrayal in advertisement . Many researchers have given their views in this regard which gives a much detailed informa tion of how men are portrayed in the advertisements.
Sunday, November 24, 2019
'She Unnames Them' by Ursula Le Guin, an Analysis Ursula K. Le Guin, a writer predominantly of science fiction and fantasy, was awarded the 2014 National Book Foundation Medal for Distinguished Contribution to American Letters. She Unnames Them, a work of flash fiction, takes its premise from the Biblical book of Genesis, in which Adam names the animals. The story originally appeared in The New Yorker in 1985, where it is available to subscribers.Ã A free audio version of the author reading her story is also available. Genesis If youre familiar with the Bible, youll know that in Genesis 2:19-20, God creates the animals, and Adam chooses their names: And out of the ground the Lord God formed every beast of the field, and every fowl of the air; and brought them unto Adam to see what he would call them: and whatsoever Adam would call every living creature, that was the name thereof. So Adam gave names to all cattle, to the birds of the air, and to every beast of the field. As Adam sleeps, God takes one of his ribs and forms a companion for Adam, who chooses her name (woman) just as he has chosen names for the animals. Le Guins story reverses the events described here, as Eve unnames the animals one by one. Who Tells the Story? Even though the story is very short, its divided into two separate sections. The first section is a third-person account explaining how the animals react to their unnaming. The second section switches to the first person, and we realize that the story all along has been told by Eve (though the name Eve is never used). In this section, Eve describes the effect of unnaming the animals and narrates her own unnaming.Ã Whats in a Name? Eve clearly views names as a way to control and categorize others. In returning the names, she rejects the uneven power relations of having Adam in charge of everything and everybody. So, She Unnames Them is a defense of the right to self-determination. As Eve explains to the cats, the issue was precisely one of individual choice. It is also a story about tearing down barriers. Names serve to emphasize the differences between the animals, but without names, their similarities become more evident. Eve explains: They seemed far closer than when their names had stood between myself and them like a clear barrier. Though the story focuses on the animals, Eves own unnaming is ultimately more important. The story is about power relations between men and women. The story rejects not just the names, but also the subservient relationship indicated in Genesis, which portrays women like a smaller part of men, given that they were formed from Adams rib. Consider that Adam declares, She shall be called Woman,/Because she was taken out of Man in Genesis. She Unnames Them Analysis Much of Le Guins language in this story is beautiful and evocative, often evoking the characteristics of the animals as an antidote to simply using their names. For example, she writes: The insects parted with their names in vast clouds and swarms of ephemeral syllables buzzing and stinging and humming and flitting and crawling and tunneling away. In this section, her language almost paints an image of the insects, forcing readers to look closely and think about the insects, how they move, and how they sound. And this is the point where the story ends. The final message is if we choose our words carefully, well have to stop taking it all for granted and really consider the world - and the beings - around us. Once Eve herself considers the world, she must necessarily leave Adam. Self-determination, for her, is more than just choosing her name; its choosing her life.Ã Ã The fact that Adam doesnt listen to Eve and instead asks her when dinner will be served might seem a little clichÃ ©d to 21st-century readers. But it still serves to represent the casual thoughtlessness of taking it all for granted that the story, at every level, asks readers to work against. After all, unname isnt even a word, so right from the beginning, Eve has been imagining a world that is unlike the one we know. Sources Genesis 2:19. The Holy Bible, Berean Study Bible, Bible Hub, 2018. Genesis 2:23. The Holy Bible, Berean Study Bible, Bible Hub, 2018. Le Guin, Ursula K. She Unnames Them. The New Yorker, January 21, 1985.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
For Transferring to UC - Personal Statement Example Economics doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t only teach to make distinction between better choice rotating around only investments and interest rates, it gives ideas about how a person can perk up his/her living standard. I appreciate that if we understand knowledge of economics it better gives idea of where to invest and what good a person can do with his/her money (Wessels). Moreover, Economics not just deals with monopoly, economy growth, and pollution etc., it is also related to personal problems such as wages, the cost of living, taxes, and employment. It deals with current vital problems of the society. The content of Economics is complementary to many other fields. Students enrolled in Economics major are not just restricted to Economics; they can choose other subjects as a minor along with Economics. Students have successfully combine Economics with other diverse fields such as Psychology, Journalism, Political Science, and many more. An economic option opens future options to students. I may gain expertise for my career in Educational Administration, Finance and Banking or Politics. My interest in Economics also developed due to my fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s occupation. He is an admirable man who works for the China Council for the promotion of International Trade (CCPIT) at the position of Vice Inspector. My fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s way of working and dealing with different issues prudently shows his uniqueness and good logic sense. Through his unique visions I learned a lot from him. He always shared his vast knowledge of Economics with me, which developed my curiosity and concern to know more about Economics. Fortunately in 2010, I acquire chance to work at China Council for the Promotion of International Trade as an internee during my semester break. During my internship, I got to learn much more new aspects about Economics and how it is related to the promotion of international trade. I learned how to work practically and
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Is weight discrimination present in the workplace - Research Paper Example In fact according to statistics taken by Centers for Disease Control in 2006, it has shown that thirty four percent of all the adults living in the U.S have a BMI (body Mass index) of not less than 30 which is considered to be obese. In addition to Americans getting heavier and heavier a survey taken by the Yale University, prove that weight discriminations are present in work places as well as in our day-to-day encounters. In fact, it has been voted to be more present than discrimination against gender or age with racism taking the highest rank. On the real reasons as to why Obese people are discriminated in the work place, majority of the people consider them as being lazy, lack of self-discipline, unsuccessful and unintelligent (Brownell et al, 2010) According to statistics that have been taken into account to demonstrate weight discrimination in work places, they display those employees who are seen as obese are at a higher percentage not to be hired. In addition to that, their chances of being promoted are minimal, and if given jobs, their payment is lower compared to their fellow thinner employees. To prove this, they usually have the same credentials, qualifications, job performance, and education. The discrimination increases, as the individual gets heavier. The heavier the individual, the more likely the chances of reporting weight discrimination will be heard (Cardain, 2011). The national Longitudinal Survey of Youth also participated in a survey that demonstrated how in work places, thinner people are paid more that obese individuals who are performing the same duty. The statistics continue to display that if a female white individuals living in the United States have a decrease in their salary by nine percent if they happen to gain more than 65 pounds of the average weight of an individual (Douglas, 2011). In comparison to their coworkers who are less heavy than them, taking the fact that they perform the same duties, it has been reported that
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Canada Before Confederation - Essay Example Though the conquest occurred, there are historians who see it as a disaster to the Canadians. One example of such a historian is Michael Burnet. It is argued that people look at the Canadians as people who belong to the second-class or middle-class. They are no longer bourgeoisies but proletariats. The British have made businesses to be monopolies. They have also made the high levels of governments to be monopolies (Jerry, 2003). The conquest really devalued the Canadians. There warriors are now seen not to be strong enough to defend there country. The conquest completely injured their pride as a nation. They see that the white people look at them as though they are irrelevant (Bumsted, 2004). The British introduced industrial projects and commerce to Canada. The impact of the white bourgeoisies led to the decline stature of the native language, French. The people of Canada had to learn English. The commercial organizations and industries were run by the British people and it was an obligation to learn English to be employed. Moreover, the language that was used by the federal government was English. This led to so many English speaking individuals to migrate to Canada. It greatly affected Montral. The city was confused to be an Anglophone one because of the signs it used in its commercial language. Due to the use of English commercial signs, Quebec French was forced to incorporate American and Canadian English so as it could conduct some businesses for example, governmental roles, running businesses and trade. Many Canadians who went to the USA came back with some knowledge of English that led to incorporation of the words in the language. The British had taken over ther e vast share of land leaving them to occupy very small areas. There was worry for all the historians who were against the conquest that there would be survival of the Catholic and French culture in the industrial and urban English-led surrounding. They viewed the conquest as having enabled the British to control the economic, social and political ways of Canada. The only way Canadians could join the public offices was by denouncing catholism and becoming Protestants. The main suggestion from historians is that, the Canadians could use their culture and past experiences to organize their economic, political and social way of life. The British introduced democracy that the French Canadians were very much against. They were used to their nationalism concept of leadership. The Roman Catholic teachings guided them. Democracy was just but too secular for them (Bumsted, 2004). There was excess industrialization by the British that led to a division over conscription. The Canadians who were speaking English were blamed for this division. The Canadians who were speaking French did not have an equal place as those who spoke English. The new generation that was coming up in Canada did not inherit the Canadian religious ways. This has been largely blamed to the industrialization by the British. The conquest has made the new generation to be very secular and yet it was a Catholic dominated environment. Until the recent age, the French Canadians have extreme fear that they will lose their people to the Anglo-Saxon surrounding that was brought about by the conquest. They have been forced to form racial unity to protect their traditions and their own. They greatly insist on the differences between them
Friday, November 15, 2019
Improving the Canadian Health System: A Survey All Canadians, rich and poor, regardless of the state of their health, age, or employment status, are covered by the same comprehensive system. Canadians go to the doctor of their choice and receive hospital care for free. There are essentially no financial barriers to health care in Canada, and there is an ample supply of physicians. Private insurance that duplicates the comprehensive services covered by the provincial plans are prohibited. Co-payments, deductibles, and direct patient payments to providers for covered services are also not permitted. This is the reason why healthcare system in Canada is considered to be the model to other countries especially the United States. The online survey that was conducted for Canadian Medical Association (CMA) in between 8th February and 15th February 2010 presents that Canadians care and concern about their current health care system. It is evident by the way they answer the poll. Majority of them think that the constant raise in the cost of universal health care will hinder the government in providing to the other necessities of the populace. In the study, respondents were asked on how to lower down the costs of health care. Almost all of the participants believed that ensuring the efficiency and productiveness of the health care system will make a difference, and that 6 out of 10 think that giving rewards and penalties enable people in living a healthy life and eventually help in slowing down the costs of health care system. This means that citizenÃ¢â¬â¢s still doubt the capacity of the government in handling the CanadaÃ¢â¬â¢s health care system. It has been the topic of the town since it was created, and is often compared to the system in the United States. Furthermore, half of Canadians believe that increasing 10% more of their taxes could help in the current issue. Nearly 50% thought that those who are sick must be responsible enough to their health problems. They should shoulder their expenses, and other people must not suffer the same thing the patients do. They have the right to choose whether to help those in need or not. Meanwhile, there were 35% of the respondents trust the government in finding ways in delivering an efficient system. Moreover, the survey also questioned the participants about their ideas in health spending. Approximately 70% said that it is better to develop a contribution-based Canada health Plan to be able to increase the income of the government. More than 60% think that it is good to create a Registered Health Savings Plan without tax so that people can save money for the future and also when they need to buy medications that are not subsidised by the government. There were few Canadians believe that raising the overtime tax would help. Similarly, one out of three think that the tax of each individuals must be based on how much they spend on their health problems. In addition, the Canadian Medical association (CMA) is initiating the Ã¢â¬Å"Health Care TransformationÃ¢â¬ to help the citizens as well as the government realise that Canada does not have the leading health care system, instead they need to improve and change for the better. They aim to make Canadians the healthiest people compared to other neighbour countries and the best health care system by 2037. According to the article in the website, a staggering97% of total revenues available will be spent on health care expenditures 23 years from now, compared to 44 per cent in 2012. Last 19th of December 2011, the federal government announced that they were going to lower the budget allotted to the provinces and territories in Canada. As a consequence, the local authorities must impose severe cutbacks to other government services like education, public transportation, livelihood, and other social welfare, and in worse case, they need to increase the tax of the citizens. On the other hand, this national issue will also give awareness to other industrialised countries like Australia, The Netherlands, United Kingdom, United States, France, Germany and Sweden. Governments talk about sustainability in terms of Ã¢â¬Å"costsÃ¢â¬ and financial impacts. This discussion often has more to do with Ã¢â¬Å"who paysÃ¢â¬ than Ã¢â¬Å"how muchÃ¢â¬ they pay. It is sometimes hard to realize that health spending in Canada is on par with most countries in the Western world, that it is substantially lower than in the United States. Based on Ã¢â¬Å"The AmericanÃ¢â¬ website article, in which it tackles and compared the universal health care policy of two countries, the United States and Canada. The latter thinks that they receive the same health benefits like the Americans do but the truth is that, Canadians appear to pay less in health insurance due to the fact that most of the advanced technologists that are available in the United States are not experiencing in Canada. Also, other individuals believe that Canada must allow the private insurance in order to lessen the burden of the government. There are other countries advocate the Public Private Partnership like British Columbia and Ontario, and there are several successful hospital projects documented with the help of PPP. In these cases, PPPs have provided much needed capital to finance government programs and projects, all while freeing public funds for core economic and social programs. In conclusion, even though Canadians are doubting the capacity of the government when it comes to health care system, they are still amenable in looking for a more effective, up-to-date and maintainable universal health care system to be able to give the best quality of health service to the society. Also, despite of the different opinions and ways on how to solve the present situation, they still have the initiative in giving what they can for the benefit of all. By the international healthcare policy, it is almost impossible to provide universal healthcare policy to most countries since there are certain rules that cannot apply to some nations. Even the industrialised countries in the world still have different approach in managing their health system. Discuss the justification for putting into place each of the following types of policy intervention solutions globally to address the ever increasing economic conditions faced by countries. Financial support and provision of pension credits for care giving Nowadays, most of the people are getting conscious of their health due to certain situations happening in the environment and also because of the help of media. As a result, population ages as years go by. Individuals are trying to get fit, eating healthy food, and prevent the vices that could cause diseases. It may sound unrealistic but it is true. For instance in some countries like Canada, people die at the age of 81, the same with New Zealand and Netherlands (The World Bank from 2009-2012). In Sweden, Singapore and United Kingdom 82 years is the estimated age people live. Meanwhile, Switzerland and France got the highest age, which is 83. Most of the countries listed in The World Bank have an increasing trend in life expectancy. Based on this data, it means that there are more elderly persons living in the country who need to be taking care of by caregivers, healthcare workers or even family members. The demand of support from the younger generation as well as the financial needs coming from the government is growing. It is also necessary to have ample supply of medical technology and physicians in order to compensate the aged population. Pension for the geriatrics and to the caregivers are necessary to have an effective health intervention, and it is the responsibility of the authority as well as the whole community to supply the necessities. Pension schemes are a form of indirect financial assistance that provide caregivers with long term benefits rather than material support while giving care. The intention of this benefit is to protect caregivers who cannot seek employment because of caregiving responsibilities against income losses from future retirement benefits. Unfortunately, not all countries have pension schemes for caregivers. Canada has two pension programmes, The Old Age Security program and Canada Pension Plan. In Norway (thru National Social Insurance Fund) and Britain (thru Invalid Care Allowance ICA) they give pension credits for the individuals who have been hindered from labour work because of care giving needs in the family. These pension credits basically require a specific amount of time an individual have been out of employment to provide care over a period of time to be eligible of the credits. The credits simply substitute the income that can affect the employment pension in the future of an individual that have been out for the reason of care giving responsibilities. Tax benefits and payments to caregivers In countries like Canada, US, Singapore, Germany, France and Sweden they use tax reliefs (such as tax credits, tax deductions and tax exemptions) as a vehicle to indirectly help caregivers. Tax credits simply compensates the taxpayer by deducting the cost of care needed for a member from the taxed owed. These policies help the caregivers to provide the essential care like medicines and medical bills with salaries just enough for a personal sustainability. Examples of these policies are in Canada (Infirm Dependent Tax Credit, Caregiver Tax Credit, Disability Tax credit and Medical Expenses), in The United States (Dependent Care Tax Credit), and while some countries (Singapore, Germany, France and Sweden) grant tax deductions and exemptions in which the costs are deductible from taxable income. Income supplements Each nation has its own income supplements for seniors. In Canada, they have The Guaranteed Income Supplement (GIS) programme which gives a monthly non-taxable benefits to those eligible recipients whom happened to have low income and still citizens of Canada. There are requirements for a person to become a beneficiary of this government programme. An individual must be a legal resident, should be receiving the Old Age security pension (OAS), and the earning is lower than the annual income. Yukon (Westernmost Canada) announced last July 2011 that federal government provides an increased income to those people who are guaranteed with OAS and GIS, up to $ 243.30 is given monthly to seniors. The same benefits with the citizens in Saskatchewan. In addition, New Zealand Superannuation and SuperGold Card are available for the residents and citizens of New Zealand. To be qualified in these benefits, a person must be aged 65 or over, and still living in NZ. The latter programme is automatically send to the applicants when the previous one is already granted. Bibliography Chapter seven- pension reform to address the long-term consequences of family caregiving. (n.d.). Retrieved from www.bcli.org: http://www.bcli.org/elder-law-resources/execsum/chapter7 drummond, S. L. (2010). Supporting Canadian Caregivers current and future directions. Toronto. service canada people serving people. (n.d.). Retrieved from government of canada: http://www.servicecanada.gc.ca/eng/services/pensions/oas/gis/index.shtml skinner, b. j. (december 8, 2008). the trouble with canadian healthcare. the american. social services of saskatchewan. (n.d.). Retrieved from government of saskatchewan: http://socialservices.gov.sk.ca/sip tax breaks for care giving expenses help sandwich generation. (2011, 12 08). Retrieved from Forbes: http://www.forbes.com/sites/ashleaebeling/2011/12/08/tax-breaks-for-caregiving-expenses-help-sandwich-generation/ the world bank. (n.d.). Retrieved from the world bank: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.DYN.LE00.IN work and income . (n.d.). Retrieved from work and income: http://www.workandincome.govt.nz/individuals/65-years-or-older/superannuation/superanuation-overview.html
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
Bullying Provoked by Differences in Gender, Sexuality, Religion, Race :: Social Issues, Bullies, homosexuals
In November of 2012, a 14 year old girl committed suicide in Canada after receiving numerous threats from 2 of her classmates because of a Ã¢â¬Å"falling outÃ¢â¬ in the girls' relationship. This past year, a freshman at Rutgers University took his own life after a video revealing his true sexuality was discovered and put onto a commonly known website for all the university to see. The well known Ã¢â¬Å"Columbine ShootingsÃ¢â¬ shocked the world because the shooters were said to have been picked on and bullied in school. The effects of bullying, even in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s childhood, can haunt them forever: Ã¢â¬Å"Sometimes, a whisper in an elementary school classroom can echo for decades. A threat called out in a middle school hallway can cling to the subconscious into adulthood. And an insecurity exploited in a high school cafeteria can redefine a futureÃ¢â¬ (Johnson 1). ItÃ¢â¬â¢s clearly obvious that bullying can take lives and torture the people whom loved the victims of such c ruelty. People, not just kids and teenagers, but people are bullied everyday across the world. The effects of bullying, or the practice of coercion by force or intimidation due to specific characteristic, are about as common as its practice in American public schools. Studies over the decades show bullied students are more likely to skip class, disengage socially and abuse substances (Johnson 1). Bullying can be provoked by a difference in race, sexuality, or a conflict within a relationship; such as a rumor. There are a variety of reasons as to why someone could and is being bullied, however those few seem to be the main source. In some cases, being bullied can be caused by the fact that a person is simply intimidated by how well you fulfill an aspects of life in which they wish to be equally successful, if not better than you. Whatever the reason may be, the forms in which to be bullied all share equal impacts and severity. Receiving physical harm, verbal abuse, or intimidation or humiliation through the internet are all forms of bullying. The pain a victim sometimes receives is severe, resulting in high anxiety, stress, eating disorders, suicide, violent retaliations: Ã¢â¬Å"When teens intimidate each other, they may attack with bats, knives, guns, or other weaponsÃ¢â¬ (Kowalski 1). Bullying can even result in eating disorders: Ã¢â¬Å"Many teens with eating disorders ha ve suffered abuse. Unconsciously, they try to control one tiny portion of their lives-eating-when everything else seems out of controlÃ¢â¬ (Kowalski 2).
Sunday, November 10, 2019
The American Nurses Association is a professional service organization that represents the entire registered American nursesÃ¢â¬â¢ population. It aims to promote health care services to every human being. It believes that health care is a right of every citizen and a restructured development and implementation of health policies is needed. Furthermore it is dedicated in producing highly skilled nurses in the field of medicine. At the local and state level, the roles and functions of ANA are to persuade every individual to go into nursing by promoting an advance nursing profession by setting up high standard nursing practices.In return, a competitive workplace is attained producing a realistic perspective of things that transpire as a nurse. Registered nurses are also helped by the association by conducting continuous research base projects for nursing. The field is continually being expanded. It also pushes for better compensation for nurses. It calls for a better working condition for nurses and implements strategic techniques in which nurses can deliver their services more efficiently and effectively locally.Thus, the local and the state benefit largely from these practices, where in services will not be delayed and are delivered cost-effectively. Nationally, ANA is in the forefront on the call for a massive restructuration of the health care programs. They believed that the health care is in crisis, and the cost of care continues grow while its quality suffers and the problem should be addressed to the policy makers, health professionals and the public.Through its political and legislative programs, ANA has taken solid positions. It expresses its desire for a restructure program by delivering primary health care services in community based settings. On its agenda also is an expanded participation of nurses in delivering those services and obtaining federal fund for practice, training and future ventures in the field of nursing. The association also discuss es the importance of safer needle devices to people.It aims to protect the rights of patients and provide them access to a better health care system. It aims to offer public and private plan of standard package of essential health care services to every citizens. The American Nurses Association exists not primarily to protect the welfare of the registered nurses. It is an organization that commits its loyalty on things that would help the public benefit. The health of the people and an efficient way of delivering services at low cost is the association primary concerns.The organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s unwavering efforts are major boost that contribute to health care reforms on both state and national level. References (Levit, 2001) (Aiken L. H. , 2000) Aiken L. H. , C. S. P. , & Sloanne D. M. . (2000). Hospital Restructuring: Does it Adversely Affect Care and Outcomes? Journal of Nursing Administration, 457-465. Levit, K. , Smith C, . Cowan C. , Lazenby H. , Sensenig A. , Catlin A. ,. (200 1). Trends in US Health Care Spending. Health Affairs, 154-164.
Friday, November 8, 2019
Social Control Essays - Political Philosophy, Michel Foucault Social Control Both Michel Foucault and Truffaut's depiction of a disciplinary society are nearly identical. But Truffaut's interpretation sees more room for freedom within the disciplinary society. The difference stems from Foucault's belief that the social control in disciplinary pervades all elements of life and there is no escape from this type of control. Foucault's work deals mostly with "power" and his conception of it. Like Nietzsche, Foucault sees power not as a fixed quantity of physical force, but instead as a stream of energy flowing through all aspects of society, its power harnesses itself in regulating the behavior of individuals, the systems of knowledge, a societies institutions, and every interaction between people. Foucault in "Discipline and Punish", applies this notion of power in tracing the rise of the prison system in France and the rise of other coercive institutions such as monasteries, the army, mental asylums, and other technologies. In his work Foucault exposes how seemingly benign or even reformist institutions such as the modern prison system (versus the stocks, and scaffolds) are technologies that are typical of the modern, painless, friendly, and impersonal coercive tools of the modern world. In fact the success of these technologies stems from their ability to appear unobtrusive and humane. These prisons Foucault goes on to explain like many institutions in post 1700th century society isolate those that society deems abnormal. This isolation seeks to attack the souls of people in order to dominate them similar to how the torture and brutality of pre-1700th century society sought to dominate the physical bodies of prisoners. In Foucault's interpretation freedom from the pervasive influence of "power" is impossible. Because his conception of "power" exists not just in individual institutions of society like prisons but instead exists in the structure of society and more importantly in peoples thought systems, escape from social control is impossible. Foucault in the last chapter talks about how even the reforms in the system have been co-opted to further the goals of the state. Instead of a lessening of social control Foucault sees that the technologies change from the wheels and gallows of the 17th century to the disciplinary society of the 19th century to the emerging carceral city of the future. In this carceral city the dispersion of power will be complete. The technologies of control will emanate from all parts of society, "walls, space, institution, rules, and discourse." Truffaut's interpretation of society and its future is much more upbeat. Although like Foucault he sees the technologies of the disciplinary society as insidious social control mechanisms. Truffault depicts the schooling, prison, and family systems as technologies that seeks to inculcate children, criminals, and subversives in the proper behavior of society. Trauffaut's film exposes how these mechanisms work. The school seeks to isolate punish and ostracize children into forming a pliant populace. The family seeks to enforce the discipline of societies larger moral codes on children. Notice how in the movie the mother in a seemingly kindly attempt to bond with her child is in fact teaching him the moral codes of society: running away from home is wrong, school is good, respect your elders, follow rules, and don't lie. The prison system in the movie seeks to isolate the deviant members of society classifying them as perverts, neurotic, madmen and in need of reprogramming and evaluation. These technologies in Truffaut's film are the seat of power in a society. Unlike Foucault Truffaut sees power as emanating from these fixed points; Foucault sees "power" and "control" and flowing through all the vessels of the body of society. In Truffaut's disciplinary society their is escape from such a world on the streets of Paris, in interacts with friends, and by running away to the sea or the movie theater. Truffaut sees escape from power as possible in anarchist like state free of adults and laws. Truffaut's ideas are similar in this aspect to Sartre who sees the society can be freed from the grip of cruel power in a socialist utopia. This is in stark contrast to Foucault who sees escape as impossible. And more importantly Foucault sees escape as growing more and more difficult as society moves from a disciplinary society to a society of control.
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
Coronary risk factors Essays Coronary risk factors Paper Coronary risk factors Paper Coronary heart disease affects more than 7 million Americans. It remains the number one cause of death in the United States Ã¢â¬â mortality is more than 500,000 death cases per year. Many of these deaths can be prevented by lifestyle changes. American Hearth Association developed some evidence based factors that increase the risk of coronary heart disease and heart attack. All risk factors coulld be generally divided into two groups: controllable and uncontrollable. Uncontrollable risk factors include gender, age and heredity. Family history of premature CHD (coronary hart disease) is especially imortant for men younger than 55 and women younger than 65. Males generally are at greater risk initially, but in postmenopausal period women have equal risk. And, of course, risk increases with age. We can control blood pressure, blood cholesterol, harmful habits (like smoking, sedentary lifestyle), avoid stress. For example, people with HDL (high denisty lipids) cholesterol less than 40 mg/dl and high total level of cholesterol (more than 240 mg/dl) are at high risk of cornary diseases. Experts agree the decline in death rates from heart disease in the United States is due in part to the publics adopting a healthier lifestyle. Many deaths associated with heart disease are preventable. Many aspects of lifestyles are the key to prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD). By modifying lifestyle factors, individuals themselves hold the key to lowering their risk for developing and preventing illness and death from CHD. We need to be conscious of coronary risk factors and take the necessary steps to reduce and eliminate them. In almost all risk factors, exercise and physical activity can have a positive physiological and psychological impact to reduce or remove the contributor to he art disease. Regular, moderate to vigorous intensity exercise plays a significant role in preventing heart disease. Studies have shown that moderate exercise, when done regularly, is beneficial in reducing risk for heart disease. According to the US Surgeon Generals report, Physical Activity and Health, regular physical activity also improves life quality and its duration, prevent cancers, type 2 diabetes, arthritis and osteoporosis, relieves symptoms of depression and anxiety and improves mood, controls weight. But we should remember that exercise capacity is reduced in many patients with cardiovascular disease. In post-acute myocardial infarction, ischemic heart disease and heart failure patients, exercise capacity has a strong independent prognostic impact. Even in subjects without history of heart disease, the lower the cardiorespiratory fitness the higher is the risk for cardiovascular events and mortality. With appropriate physical activity, exercise capacity is improved in most individuals. Improvement of functional capacity is associated with improvement of survival. To develop appropriate exercise program we should to determine present exercise levels (functional capacity), existing risk factors and get data of medical examinations. Client should be well motivated to reduce risk and to improve his/her cardiovascular fitness. To define exercises capacity we usually use aerobic fintness test (1-mile walkin on a treadmill), muscular fitness (push-ups or similar exercies), flexibility, BMI (body-mass index) defeninion. We should discuss the results with client, calculate a target heart range of pulse for him/her, to teach him/her how to take pulse, provide exact instructions and demonstrations. A comprehensive exercise program combines stretching, aerobic conditioning, and weight training. Inactive adults can improve their health by becoming moderately active. Exercise intensity, frequency, and duration are terms used in describing an exercise plan. Certain level of intensity is determined by the results of stress-test. The level of intensity should be Ã¢â¬Å"somewhat hardÃ¢â¬ to client. At least 30 Ã¢â¬â 60 minutes should be devoted to aerobic activity and maintaining heart rate within. To improve cardio respiratory capacity and control weight we usually recommend to exercise at least 3 Ã¢â¬â 5 days a week and to be moderately active most days of the week. Walking is the safest and most effective ways to improve cardiovascular fitness Ã¢â¬â itÃ¢â¬â¢s an ideal low impact aerobic exercise. In persons who have been sedentary in recent months, in those with known cardiovascular disease or at high risk, and in persons aged more than 40 years, the initial duration and intensity of the endurance phase should be suitably reduced. Ten minutes of gentle activity such as walking may be an appropriate first step, increasing at intervals of one week or longer according to tolerance, as fitness increases. Increments are first achieved by increasing duration. Later intensity is increased, for example by walking briskly, or by alternate walking and jogging. Dosage is affected by duration, intensity and frequency of exercise. The preferred frequency is 4-5 times weekly with an endurance phase of 20 30 minutes when a more gentle programme is chosen, or (in young fit persons) 3 times weekly with an endurance phase of 40 up to 60 minutes if it is more vigorous. While the latter option is suitable for younger persons and for fit middle-aged and older persons, a lesser duration and moderate intensity are appropriate to most middle-aged and older people, e.g. walking, fast walking, or alternate walking and jogging, or gentle swimming for 30 minutes at least 4-5 times weekly. Many authorities regard it as acceptable to divide moderate exercise such as walking into shorter aerobic periods of 10-15 minutes, 2-3 times a day, if the person finds this more acceptable. Intensity can be judged subjectively, or objectively by instructing the subject to monitor pulse rate during exercise. A training effect is obtained at rates of 60% of maximum rate fo r age, and this is the initial target rate. Supervised exercise is recommended for clients at higher risk. Such persons at higher risk, including those aged 35 years and over who have been sedentary, should undergo formal exercise ECG testing prior to selection of a programme of exercise. References: 1: Gohlke H. [Lifestyle modification is it worth it?] Herz. 2004 Feb;29(1):139-44. 2: Vallebona A, Gigli G.Ã [Significance of exercise capacity in cardiology] Ital Heart J Suppl. 2003 Sep;4(9):712-9. 3:Ã Batty GD.Ã Physical activity and coronary heart disease in older adults. A systematic review of epidemiological studies. Eur J Public Health. 2002 Sep;12(3):171-6. 4: LaMonte MJ, Eisenman PA, Adams TD, Shultz BB, Ainsworth BE, Yanowitz FG.Ã Cardiorespiratory fitness and coronary heart disease risk factors: the LDS Hospital Fitness Institute cohort. Circulation. 2000 Oct 3;102(14):1623-8. 5:Ã Haapanen N, Miilunpalo S, Vuori I, Oja P, Pasanen M.Ã Association of leisure time physical activity with the risk of coronary heart disease, hypertension and diabetes in middle-aged men and women. Int J Epidemiol. 1997 Aug;26(4):739-47. 6: Folsom AR, Arnett DK, Hutchinson RG, Liao F, Clegg LX, Cooper LS. Physical activity and incidence of coronary heart disease in middle-aged women and men. Sci Sports Exerc. 1997 Jul;29(7):901-9. 7 Moller LF, Kristensen TS, Hollnagel H.Ã Physical activity, physical fitness, and cardiovascular risk factors. an Med Bull. 1991 Apr;38(2):182-7.
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Renzo Piano - Essay Example Various music functions are usually held at the complex. It occupies a spacious area in the 1960 Olympia area. The building designs such as the three bug-like halls take the form of musical instruments. The unique features of the building attract visitors from different part of the world. It is strategically located near big hotels that can accommodate visitors in the city. It is also close to other attractive places such as the Villa Glori Park. The place is also accessible because it is located near a high way called the Autostrada A1. In addition, it is near a railways station called the Roma Termini. The railways station is only 6 kilometer away from the music complex. Visitors from different parts of the world can easily access it through the Fiuicino airport that is only 33 kilometer to the architecture. The auditorium was built in an area that used to be a parking area. The area is near Parioli and Flaminio districts. Its strategic location and many support services make it an ideal place to hold many types of events (Bennet & William 199). The Music complex is in an open-air amphitheatre with halls that look like music boxes. It spaces are occupied by various concert halls. Each hall has different designs in terms of dimensions and functions. However, the spaces are very flexible and versatile and can be regulated depending of the type of music performance. For instance, its floor and ceiling can be adjusted in order to change the property of the halls. The three concert halls are accommodated in a huge dome-shaped structure within the music complex. One of the halls called the petrassi has enough space to accommodate about 750 seats while Sinopoli hall can accommodate about 1200 seats. The third hall named Santa Cecilia is the biggest among the three since it can accommodate about 2800 seats. The space of the music complex also has other rooms such as the practice rooms where people can practice before
Friday, November 1, 2019
Marketing Mix Critique and Analysis Masters Home Improvement Stores, Australia - Assignment Example Competitors are becoming more aggressive in their approach to selling their products to the customers (USA International Business Publications, 2007). Masters home improvement has a keen eye on online selling which encourage other. However, the aggressive competition started with Bunnings in big-box retailing. Bunnings has already taken a remarkable place in the electrical product sales business and Masters Home Improvement improve in this sector .The aim of this competition is to be competitive in the market .Finally Masters Home Improvement Stores should be able to look at the way the competitors are dealing with the environment and thereby look at the ways in which they may be losing their strategic edge. Failing to do this will only mean that Masters Home Improvement Stores will not be able to handle the competitive market. Customers Customers are also another micro factor and must be considered in a more fundamental way. This is why customer service is becoming another very impo rtant part of the marketing mix (Miller & Jentz, 2007). In a modern world, customers have an ever greater choice for the products they want and it is therefore necessary for the business to know how to motivate the customer to choose buying from it and not the competitors. Masters Home Improvement must be able to take care of its customers if it is to be able to deal with the market issues. As Barlow (2010) says, customer service in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s global business environment is no longer limited to just speaking nicely to the customer. In trying to have better relations with the customers, loyalty programs are becoming very popular with every business which wants to retain its customers and Masters Home Improvement needs to be more vigilant of this. These programs serve two important purposes in the modern marketing environment. The first such purpose is rewarding the customer in order to make the customer feel wanted and appreciated (Solomon, 2012). Masters Home Improvement has sev eral ways in which it tries to achieve this. When the customer feels appreciated, they are more loyal to the firm and are likely to come back over and over again. At the same time, as Dezalay and Garth (1996) consider these customer loyalty programs help in hooking the customers to the firm because the customer is only rewarded depending on how strong their loyalty to the firm is. As a result, the customer loyalty reward systems also help in increasing the volumes of sales per customer as the customer will be lured to buy more because they know that the more they buy the more points they will have (Tschohl, 1996). Part 2Marketing Environment AnalysisÃ¢â¬â Macro Trends Technology One of the biggest issues that Masters Home Improvement faces today is technology. With regard to Masters Home Improvement Stores, technology is an important thing to consider because most of their products are technology based. With the current rate of technological growth, new products keeps coming up a nd customers are always spoilt for choice with regard to variety. In this regard, Masters Home Improvement Stores must be able to know that it is keeping step with the new technological products so as to know that the customers will not go elsewhere seeking for better more modern products. Technology has provided the customers with many options for every piece of technological device. Demographics Demographics also play an important role in the development of the marketing mix. For Masters Home