Monday, September 30, 2019
Joseph Andrews is Fielding's first novel. It is a classical example of a literary work which started as a parody and ended as an excellent work of art in its own right. The work Fielding intended to parody was Richardson's first novel Pamela, or Virtue Rewarded which had taken England by storm in the years following 1740 when it was first published. In his novel Fielding intended in the beginning to show how Lady Booby (aunt of Ã¢â¬Å"Lord B. Ã¢â¬ in Richardson's novel) attempts the virginity of Joseph Andrews, described as the virtuous Pamela's brother but in the end discovered to be different. The whole intention was comic. But after Chapter IX Joseph Andrews seems to break away completely from the original intention. Parson Adams, who has no counterpart in Pamela, runs away with the novel. He Ã¢â¬Å"is one of the most living, lovable, comical bundles of wisdom and simplicity in all literature. Ã¢â¬ In the words of Edmund Gosse, Ã¢â¬Å"Parson Abraham Adams, alone, would be a contribution to English letters. Ã¢â¬ He indeed is the hero of the novel, and not Joseph Andrews. Fielding was aware of giving a new literary form with Joseph Andrews which he called Ã¢â¬Å"a comic epic in prose. Ã¢â¬ Fielding is a great master of the art of characterization also. Fielding's broad human sympathy coupled with his keen observation of even the faintest element of hypocrisy in a person is his basic asset as a master of characterization. He laughs and makes us laugh at many of his characters, but he is never cynical or misanthropic. He is a pleasant satirist, sans malice, sans harshness. He gives no evidence of being angry at the foibles of his characters or of holding a lash in readiness. His comic creations resemble those of Chaucer and Shakespeare. Parson Trulliber and Falstaff, if they were to meet, would have immediately recognized each other! Fielding is one of the greatest humorists in English literature. The same comic spirit which permeates his plays is also evident in his novels. As he informs us, the author upon whom he modeled himself was Cervantes; it is not surprising, therefore, that comedy should be his method. Fielding's humor is wide in range. It rises from the coarsest farce to the astonishing heights of the subtlest irony. On one side is his zestful description of various fights and, on the other, the grim irony of Jonathan Wild. Higher! than both is that ineffable, pleasant, and ironic humor that may be found everywhere in Tom Jones but is at its best in Joseph Andrews where it plays like summer lightning around the figure of Parson Adams-an English cousin of Don Quixote. Fielding's very definition of the novel as Ã¢â¬Å"a comic epic in proseÃ¢â¬ is indicative of the place of humor and comedy in his novels and, later, those of many of his followers. It may be pointed out here that Richardson had no sense of humor; he was an unsmiling moralist and sentimentalist. Comparing the two, Coleridge says: Ã¢â¬Å"There is a cheerful, sunshiny, breezy spirit that prevails everywhere strongly contrasted with the close, hot, tfay-dreamy continuity of Richardson. Ã¢â¬ Fielding's humor is sometimes of the satiric kind, but he is never harsh or excessively cynical.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
The Loftus and Palmer study is a laboratory experiment. This means that the study is artificial. The artificiality of the setting can intimidate participants or make them more obedient. This in turn can produce unnatural behavior and results that do not generalize to real life. This can be seen in experiment 2 when 12% of the control group reported seeing broken glass even though they were unaffected by the verb. This could be attributed to the leading question or to demand characteristics when participants look for cues as to what the research is about and behave accordingly, perhaps to please the researcher, especially as the participants in this case are students that may even be familiar with the researcher as they are from the same environment. In a nutshell, due to the nature of the experiment, it lacks ecological validity. In a real life situation there would be an element of surprise and an increase in emotion. Basically the eye-witness would be in some way involved, which is not the case while watching the video the eye-witness is not part of the event. Furthermore, an eye-witness in a real life situation may discuss the event with other people which may alter their memory of the event. Lastly, an eye-witness may think more carefully about giving an answer when in a real life situation when they realize that their answer could judge how innocent or guilty a person is, they may hesitate and realize the importance, although when taking part in a study they may just give an answer without as much thought. The participants were students meaning that the researchers used an opportunity sample. This means that all the participants share certain common characteristics and are not representative of society, these may include age, driving experience and educational background. If the study used a random sample the results could be generalized. This study was very useful because it introduced the notion of reconstructive hypothesis and that eye-witness testimony isntÃ¢â¬â¢t reliable. This study, and studies similar to it, have led to changes nowadays as to how the police question and use the information given by witnesses. Certain other details that could also have influenced the participants answers include: the colour or make of the car; the driver; the ability to estimate speed.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
a. Description of the System As the world moves a global competitive and more complex electronic place, lots of establishments still are using the old way of doing process. The best thing to consider is the assurance that the clients are getting the satisfaction of the services provided by the company and also the creating each member a friendly environment. The existing loan or lending transaction processing system of some related companies is just manually operated. It takes a few days or even weeks to be processed. This can be obsolete because of the presence of the computers, which could facilitate any transaction at faster rate. Actually the companies merely use computer for the documentations and not for their system. In fact, they only use word and excel which are generally used Microsoft office works and not a specific task. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s why; the computer does not help them a lot to make their process faster and accurate. Thus, the lending system will provide a better way to facilitate those transaction and queries and also the process happening in the company. Automatically checking the status of members/staff and clients are included that will prevent both of them to consume a bunch of time. In that case of lending system that will provide a speed up in the process of transaction processes for lending companies. If the system will be successful the staffs or clerks will reduce the works and the clients will not be bored to wait until the transaction will finish. This can also aid the problem of technicalities and errors provided by the manual system, so it will be efficient to them. b. Statement of the Problem The study attempt to know if the computerize lending system can help the lending/loaning companies speed up the process of their transactions with their clients. This study need to answer the following questions. 1. How helpful is a computerize lending system to a company? 2. How can a computerize lending system fasten the works of the clerk of a company? 3. What are the possible disadvantages of using a computerize lending system? 4. Is the time consumed by a computerize lending system faster than the manual one? 5. Is the computations of computerize lending system more accurate than the manual computations? c. Objectives of the Study 1. To make a functional lending system that can makes the work of employees easier. 2. To build a lending system that can be use by most lending companies. 3. To fasten the work of a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s clerks and all employees involved. 4. To add some functions that is not usually seen at most computerize lending systems. d. Significance of the Study The significance of making the manual system computerized is to fasten the works of the employees because of faster computations, faster transactions and better information storing by making the confidential transactions secured. It can also be used to see the information and transactions made by their clients. e. Scope Our system can save and see the information of the clients, can be use the lending transaction function by most of the lending companies, can be use to see the transactions made by their clients. Our systems also have an authenticating procedure to limits the employees that can view the transactions. f. Limitations Our system is only limited to be executed to a computer and cannot be run using any other devices like smart phones, tablets and old model computers. Our system can have a server for multiple transactions using several client computers but cannot be use for online transactions.
Friday, September 27, 2019
Answer the following questions about history (HIST 4028) - Essay Example Mills remonstrates in his essay from a non-paternalistic point of view where he identifies three basic areas of human liberty. He claims that an individual should not be deterred from pursuits meant for self gratification as long as they do not pose any harm to others. The only instance that a person can be denied their liberties is when they pose a risk or harm to other persons. He sums this up when he describes this as every individualÃ¢â¬â¢s right to exercise his or her inward domain of consciousness (Winks & Neuberger 51). The other area, which Mills identifies, is a personÃ¢â¬â¢s right to decide on the path, in life, they wish to take, which is represented as the liberty of tastes and pursuits. In this, he tries to show how humans are a dynamic entity that is capable of forging its own destiny individually without having to rely on guidelines from other people. The notion being forwarded by MillÃ¢â¬â¢s three basic principles of human liberty are focused on individuality. I ndividuality is the key tenent in human nature that determines the influence and the impact that people have on others and the world. Individuality determines whether a personÃ¢â¬â¢s liberties are construed as dangerous to society because that personÃ¢â¬â¢s nature is expressed by how he utilizes his rights of liberty (Winker & Neuberger 59). History played a critical role on the development of philosophies and principles that he used to write his essay. Mills argued that there was a need for a scientific perspective and approach towards history in order for it to be used effectively utilized in society. Mills termed history as a progressive record in the course of events that contribute to the development of mankind. There were some scholars of his time who did not see the sense in his views, and some went ahead and disputed his postulates about the importance of history. This saw Mills go through a depressing time in his life and a change in his views on some subjects that he h ad earlier agreed upon. His depression created a period in his life where he was able to reflect on a wide range of ideas. His conviction on the importance of history in the study of other disciplines, in the humanities, grew stronger during this period. Mills focused his attention on French history, which he deemed more appropriate because most French thinkers at the time seemed to share in his schools of thought. Mills believed that historical events had a significant bearing on the development of society in the present. He also postulated that these events also had a substantial bearing to future events if inferences could be made on the past with regard to the future. Mills was able to study history through a scientific mindset and analyze historical facts. Mills forwarded the notion that historical facts can be used to unveil the law of progress which can enable people predict the future. There were some significant influences in his life that contributed to his notions about t he role history had to play in relation with other disciplines. One of the influences came from his interaction with French scholars and their written works concerning a wide range of subjects some, which intrigued him because of their philosophies regarding historyÃ¢â¬â¢s role. Mills involvement in the The London Debating Society gave him the opportunity to make acquaintance of people like Samuel Coleridge (Winker & Neuberger 184). ColeridgeÃ¢â¬â¢s philosophies regarding history complemented MillÃ¢â¬â¢
Thursday, September 26, 2019
The case for Bainbridge Borough - Essay Example First and foremost, this person will undergo intensive labour to deliver the baby. This entitles the person to have some time to rest in order to be able to recover from the pain likely to be experienced during the period of giving birth. Secondly, the mother needs to nurse the newly born baby by suckling her and providing other necessary gentle care. Instead, Carol was offered two consecutive 90-day reasonable purpose leaves which amounted to 6 months of leave. This is a relevant contract provision which states that leaves of absence for a limited period without payÃ¢â¬ânot to exceed 90 daysÃ¢â¬âshall be granted for any reasonable purpose. What Carol wants is leave to be with her adopted baby so this unpaid leave is just as good as maternity leave. In other words, it can be seen that Carol just wants to be controversial over nothing since she has been given another alternative to maternity leave which is specifically meant for mothers who have given birth naturally. 2. As an attorney for AFSCME Local 10, I think the councilÃ¢â¬â¢s rejection of CarolÃ¢â¬â¢s unpaid maternity leave request violated the collective bargaining agreement. Article X, Section 4.A which deals with issues related to maternity as indicated by the final agreement between Bainbridge Borough and Local 10 state that maternity leaves not to exceed 6 months shall be granted at the request of an employee. As stipulated in this provision, it can be seen that Carole has requested for the leave, therefore she should be granted the opportunity to get it. Maternity leave covers various issues related to child bearing and rearing hence Carol should also be granted this leave since she intends to take care for her newly adopted baby. The baby needs mother care and this is the reason why I believe that Carole should be granted the leave. The refusal by the council to grant Carol this leave can be regarded as discrimination since the law is very clear that this leave can be granted to the
The Theory of Conservative Crime - Assignment Example According to the research findings, it can, therefore, be said that the theory of conservative crime states that committing a crime is an individual choice. In an article published in 2013, the case of a female teacher who committed the sexual offense with a 14-year-old in 2004 was made public majorly to highlight the decisions that were made in the court in regard to her case. The cause was presented in a conservative perspective majorly due to the fact that the article indicated the effects of her acts that led to her arrest such as lewd as well as the lascivious battery with the teenager. The female teacher, Mr. Debra Lafava was responsible for committing this crime. The free will of criminal offenders is usually a major issue; a personÃ¢â¬â¢s liberty to make certain personal decisions is a great determinant of whether or not they commit a crime. In some cases, individuals may make decisions and act according to their decisions in manners considered legally unethical. In additio n, the definition of criminal acts is considered broad. This is due to the fact that what is considered crime vary from one society to another. Crime entails myriad issues and is described differently from one place to another. Enforcement is pertinent in controlling crime owing to the fact it entails undertaking procedures, specifically geared towards preventing the occurrence of crime i.e. formulation and implementation of legal criminal prevention tools.
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
The experience of inactive nurses returned to nursing after completing a refresher course by Hammer and Craig - Essay Example The focus of the study was to highlight the experiences of nurses In Midwestern University who were returning to active service after completing independent refresher courses between the years 2000 and 2005 (Hammer and Craig, 2008). Generally, the primary purpose of the phenomenological research was to identify some of the experiences usually encountered by previously inactive nurses taking refresher courses before returning to active nursing practice. Refresher courses is one of the evidenced best practice practices that are increasingly being used in the health care system to improve the performance of professionals particularly after being inactive in the service. The researchers have effectively employed the use of a systematic inquiry and well structured methods to address some of their research questions. This is particularly important because use of evidence based practice in nursing is widely based on the previous researches. This paper critically analyzes the appropriateness of the qualitative research design used as well as the feasibility and effectiveness of the research article. Feasibility and significance of the study With regard to the feasibility and effectiveness of the research, a number of previous publications have revealed a growing shortage of nurses in our health in various healthcare institutions. ... after undergoing refresher courses is significantly important because it will provide more insight into some of the ways of mitigating the current shortage of nurses. For instance the described experiences of inactive nurses who are returning to practice can effectively be used in evidence based practice to help in the improve patient care in healthcare institutions. Appropriateness of the study design The research methodology used by the researchers has met most of the conditions necessary for research methodology congruence. For example some of the criteria adopted during the conduct of the research study included selecting participants who have successfully completed refresher courses and had been employed in active nursing for 6 month after completing the course, had time to participate in face to face interviews and were living round the research centers. In this regard, the criterion used in selecting the potential respondents not only ensured the effectiveness of the research but it also ensured that the researchers the prospective participants were best placed to effectively provide answers to some of the research questions. On the other hand, the use of face to face interviews provided the researchers with an opportunity to clarify any doubt to the participants and adapt the questions such as by rephrasing or repeating some questions. This is particularly necessary because it enables the researchers to ensure that the interview questions are well understood thereby improving the reliability of the responses. Additionally the use of face Ã¢â¬âto-face interviews also allowed the researchers to pick up nonverbal clues that may be unconsciously exhibited by the respondents. It is however worth noting that despite the effectiveness of this research method, face
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
International Business Practices-Phase 1 DB - Essay Example er provides insight into international marketing and specific examples of mistakes companies have made in the past at marketing their products on foreign grounds. In the 21st century introducing new products into the international market is a basic necessity of any company trying to increase its sales and customer base. International marketing efforts require American businesspeople to at least gain a basic familiarity with the customs and practices of the country in which a company is considering doing business (Kammeyer, 2006). The discrepancies in the characteristics of a foreign customer include different taste and preferences, different lifestyles and altogether a different culture (Exploring International Markets, 2007). Marketing analyst must take these factors into consideration as they develop marketing plans and campaigns which incorporate penetration of international markets. There are many variables and elements that must be considered within a marketing plan to introduce new products into a different country. Some of the main factors that must be considered are listed below: Culture influences the behavior, views, customs and values of people, thus culture must be considered in the creation of marketing campaigns. In Asia red ink symbols a message from the dead; any written messages with ads in this market should never include red ink to avoid disrespectful messages. Racial and ethnic implications can cause great misunderstanding and lead to disastrous blunders. In 2002 A&F introduced a T-shirt which became very popular and created a lot of controversy, since they displayed slogans and stereotyped images of Asians (Direct Newsline, 2002). The campaign was launched nationally by the company. By creating such a racially offensive product this company hurt it chances of launching its products in the future to the Asian market which in the year 2000 produced $3,331 billion in GNP (Schneider, 2002). Climatic differences must be considered before
Monday, September 23, 2019
The scholarly articles issues that are related to Chinas social security - Essay Example The scholarly articles issues that are related to ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s social security The article focuses on the need for reforming the social security sector in China. Scholarly articles are addressed to policy makers as evidenced by the three articles of which two were published in the International Journal of Social Welfare and the other article was published in the China Economic Review. Keywords: order, equations, systematic, articles 1. Introduction The scholarly articles chosen for this analysis address issues that are related to ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s social security. The three articles are consistent with the general trend exhibited in the discipline and will thus form the backbone of this analysis to cut across the discipline. Yang, Williamson, and Shen author the first article in the year 2009, and it was published in the International Journal of Social Welfare. The article addresses the issue of social security in China, specifically relating to the rural aged. The article has been written in efforts of attempting to alleviate the social security coverage in the country. Leung authored the second article selected in 2003, and it was published in the International Journal of Social Welfare. The article focuses on the need for reforming the social security sector in China. Feldstein is the author of the third article, published in the China Economic Review in 1999. The articleÃ¢â¬â¢s focus is centered on the necessary reforms in the social security system of China. ... termined from an in-depth analysis conform to the general systematic set up of presenting findings that border on the social-economic aspect of daily life. The analysis is written in conformity with the writing style applied in the third article that was selected. The sections are a representative of the general format that is used in writing academic articles in the discipline. 2. Analysis of the articles The authors of the three articles are a true representative of the academic elite in the discipline with Leung working at the Department of Social Work and Social administration at the University of Hong Kong. Shen and Williamson are faculty members at the Boston College while Yang is a faculty member at the Beihang University. Feldstein is an associate at the Harvard University in the department of economics while at the same time he serves at the National Bureau of Economic Research. The five authors have a mastery aura of the field and this can be attested to by their systematic analysis of social economic issues that are linked to the provision of social security in China. The purposes of the different authors in the three articles are intertwined and are concentrated about providing a solution in the social security policy of China. The three articles identify the need of enacting a strong social security policy that would work towards ensuring that the elderly people of China reap the maximum benefit. The simplification of the social security system in the country alongside the increased coverage will be fruitful in reducing the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s dependency level as well as improving the living standards of its elderly citizens. The rhetorical strategies advanced by the three articles are almost similar in the composition and advancement of the topics. The authors
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Sufism is the heart of Islam Essay Sufism (tasawuf in Arabic) represents the mystical dimension of Islamic religious life. The phrase mystical itself can be problematic in the sense that it can sometimes be used to depict the occult or the quasimagical quackery of new age thinking or new religious movements. It may also at times be used to express the sense of the mysterious felt by those who assert some class of spirituality, yet Sufism has little, if anything to do with these. Through following a series of devotional practises, which lead to higher levels of ecstatic state, Sufis aspire to realise a condition in which they are in direct communion with God. Sufism itself has been defined in many ways, some view it as a continuous striving to cleanse ones self of all that is bad or evil in order to acquire virtue, others view it as the path followed by an individual who is seeking to free himself or herself from human vices and weaknesses in order to acquire angelic qualities and conduct pleasing to God. Sufism has been criticised heavily by Muslims as well as non-Muslims, while some have argued from the perspective that Sufism is the ultimate heart of Islam. If Sufism despite having differences from conventional Islam, is actually the heart of Islam, then if so, why cant the other sects of Islam such as the Shiite or the Wahabi also be seen as the heart of Islam? The phrase heart of Islam must be given a pinned definition in this context, as some will see it as being the most important thing of the Islamic religion while others will see it simply as Islams truth. Both interpretations of the phrase heart of Islam are vitally the same yet evidence can adjust whether they are the primary hearts of Islam or even secondary. Sufism originated as a reaction to certain features of orthodox Islam. They regarded the mere observance of religious law as a matter of outer conformity and they encouraged a desire for inner, personal experience of the divine through meditation and other means. They encouraged the rejection of wealth and class distinctions and based themselves on the simpler lives led by the prophet Muhammad s.a.w and the first caliphs i n contrast to the worldliness of the Umayyad and Abbaasid caliphates. Sufis are characterised by their particular attachment to zikr (remembrance of Allah) and asceticism (seclusion). The early Sufis focused on the central idea of the love of God, which was introduced by Rabia-al- Adawiyah in the eighth century. From the earliest history of Islam, Sufism gradually developed to take on an organisational form. Pious individuals formed groups or brotherhoods known as turuq (plural of tariqah, which means path) . Each tariqah would be headed by a Sheikh or a spiritual guide and consist of devotees who saw the Sheikh as a true teacher on the path to God. In the course of time, different turuq developed, each having its own teachings and instructions for purifying the heart . If Sufism really is the heart of Islam then there must be factual evidence to support this view, which I am now going to analyse and interpret. Firstly, although Sufism mostly concentrates on the inner world of man and deals with the meaning and effect of religious commandments on mans spirit and heart and is therefore abstract, it does not contradict any of the Islamic ways based on the Quran and the Sunna. In fact its source is the Quran and the Sunna, as well as the conclusions drawn from the Quran and the Sunna via deduction by the purified scholars of Islam. The Quran for Muslims is their most holy book, which lays down for them the law and commandments as well as containing a comprehensive religious philosophy. The Sunna for Muslims is the deeds, sayings and the manners of the prophet, which are to be emulated by Muslims all over. Both the Quran and theSunna are of great importance for Muslims and for their religion Islam. So if Sufism derives its sources from the Quran and the Sunna then it must also be the heart of the religion itself. Sufism dwells on the fundamental virtues of Islam, knowledge of God, sincerity, perfect goodness, and other similar fundamental virtues. The priorities of Sufism have never been different from those of the Shariah. The Shariah is the body of Islamic religious law. Both groups have always depended on the Quran and the Sunna, which are the two main sources of Islam. Both disciplines stress the importance of belief and of engaging in good deeds and good conduct, the only difference is that Sufis emphasize deepening the meaning of good deeds and multiplying them. Sufism must be the heart of Islam since it makes the superfluous endeavour to increase the good deeds that make Allah pleased. Another notable fact is the meaning of the word Islam surrender. True surrender is not only concerned with the will of a Muslim, as it must also involve their whole being. Islam states that a person must be the perfect servant of God in the sense of following his commands. Clearly Allah has given Muslims many faculties such as free will and intelligence, therefore the surrender of Muslims to Allah must be complete and total and not limited to certain faculties. It must occupy the entire individual because otherwise unknown thoughts and emotions as well as false ideas can combine with a misleading sense of external surrender of ones will to God to produce acts in the name of religion that can have disastrous consequences. Sufism is the heart of Islam because Sufis themselves surrender internally as well as externally to the will of God, as it not only is one of their core beliefs but also they make the extra effort to surrender to the will of God, instead of mainstream Muslims who limit themselves to following the legalistic side of the religion. Sufis are the ones who show the greatest attachment to the Shariah, whose inner significance they seek to reach. A different explanation as to why Sufism is the heart of Islam is because although the Quran emphasizes that all Muslims stand equally before God, it also insists that human beings are distinguished in rank according to their knowledge of the truth and virtue, as in the verses, are those who know equal with those who know not? (Quran39:9) and one of Sufisms main goals is ultimate knowledge, knowledge of God, which is why they must be the heart of their religion, as they create extra emphasis on the fundamental virtues of Islam. In Islam itself, Sufism has been over the centuries the hidden heart that has renewed the religion intellectually, spiritually, and ethically and has played the greatest role in its spread and in its relation with other religions. As this person noted in their book , Sufis themselves have visualized Islam as a circle whose hub is the haqiqah. Haqiqa refers to the inner Truth or inner Reality that Sufis believe is at the heart of Islamic revelation. The radii of the circle are the tariqah, and the circumference is the Shariah. Tariqah means the path that one follows through spiritual practise in order to reach the ultimate truth (the haqiqa). Each Muslim is like a point on the circumference, whose totality composes the Islamic community or ummah. To reach the haqiqah one must first stand on the circumference, that is, practise the Shariah, and then follow the tariqah, or path to God, whose end is the centre, God himself, or the haqiqah. This raises the truth that Sufism is the heart of Islam, as here it undoubtedly explains how. All the evidence noted above bestows the suggestion that Sufism is the heart of Islam yet the confirmation has not been revised from both sides and is therefore not balanced yet. To balance our answer to the main question Sufism is the heart of Islam then we must now take into consideration reasons for why Sufism might not be the heart of Islam. Firstly Sufism has come across many problems by fellow Muslim brothers and sisters. For instance, much Sufi poetry refers to intoxication, ( Intoxicated by the Wine of Love. From each a mystic silence Love demands) (Poem by famous Sufi poet Farid ud Din Attar) which Islam expressly forbids as haraam. Some Sufi orders use music, drugs and alcohol to produce ecstatic states. Wine is even a symbol of divine intoxication in the Sufi language of ecstasy. Not only are these haraam in Islam but they also divert the spiritual focus of Sufism. How may Sufism be the pure, uncontaminated heart of Islam when those things that are prohibited in Islam are not forbidden in Sufism? Consequently this leads to doubts being cast over the validity of Sufism as a part of Islam. Not only that but some groups have emerged that consider themselves above the shariah and discussed Sufism as a method of bypassing the rules of Islam in order to attain salvation directly, this has been dissaproved of heavily by muslim scholars. Many Muslims have even considered Sufism as a corruption of Islam drawing on the Sufi concept of fana, passing into Allah and feeling Allahs presence combined with the use of mystical experiences. Fana is interpreted, as being at one with Allah, which is crucially erroneous as Allah is the one and only and the major offence in Islam is to unite an additional with the most glorious Allah. A key theme in Islam is tawhid which is the concept of monotheism and firmly holds that God is the one and only. Further so why Sufism has no site in being the heart of Islam is that the Sufis say: When you unite with the Beloved (God), then there is neither command nor prohibition in matters of religion. Sufis here have customarily discarded the doctrine of the fear of God, the wrath of the Day of Judgment, the fury of the Hell-Fire and the promise of Jannah. They say Faith based on compulsion is slavery, and God has created man with intelligence, free will and love. Hence the mainspring of Sufism is love not fear and obedience to the religious laws. Yet the one and only Allah the Exalted describe his believers as: Verily those who fear their Lord with reverence, and those who believe in the signs of the Lord, and those who ascribe no partners to their Lord, and those who give what they give while their hearts are full of fear, because to their Lord they will return.(23.57-61) Thus it has been clearly stated here using verses from the Quran that Sufism has gone against the doctrines of Islam, as the love of Allah necessitates following the commands of the Messenger of Allah with hope for reward and fear of punishment in the Hereafter. Muslims deem that any particular act of devotion must be substantiated by the Quran and Sunna only. Allah the Exalted says: Say (to them), Produce your proof if you are truthful. [2: 111], and the Prophet (s.a.w) said, The created is not to be obeyed over the Creator. However the sheikhs in Sufism are given the standing of a deity, when attributes which belong to only Allah, are also assigned to their Sheikhs. How can Sufism be the heart of Islam when they are going against Allah in terms of whom to praise and to what extent. Never the less orthodox Muslims may condemn fundamentals of Sufism yet they never habitually outlaw Sufism as completely incorrect. In this sense if there are elements of Sufism criticised heavily by Muslims as well as non-Muslims alike, and there are other elements that are not usually criticised, then how may Sufism be the true heart of the religion of Islam when it is clearly not accepted fully and truly by all Muslims of all sects. To understand the true heart of Islam it is essential to understand the significance of the prophet Muhammad s.a.w from the traditional Muslim point of view. The Quran asserts clearly that the prophet was a man and not divine but also adds that he was given the most exalted and noble character and that he was chosen as a model for Muslims to emulate. For Muslims the prophet is a mortal man but also Gods most perfect creature, or what the Sufis call the universal man. As Sufis seek spiritual closeness with God then they are also putting themselves on the same level as Muhammad s.a.w. If Sufism is subsequently not the heart of Islam, in that case then what is? Could the five pillars: Shahada, Salah, Zakah, Sawm or Hajj be the hearts of Islam. Or the Prophet Muhammad s.a.w, the ummah, the concept of jihad, the Quran, possibly Sunnis or shias or a sect of Islam? These are all elements of the religion Islam, yet what is that which stands out above the rest? If the holy Quran is the source of Islam, then it must also be the heart of Islam? This book of divine guidance and direction for mankind was revealed to the prophet Muhammad s.a.w through the angel Gabriel. The prophet Muhammad s.a.w on the other hand is considered to be the central human figure in the religion of Islam as well as being the restorer of the uncorrupted original monotheistic faith of Adam, Abraham, and Jesus etc. what if the prophet Muhammad s.a.w a Sufi? More over I mean this central religious text of Islam cannot be unaccompanied in being the heart of Islam, meaning the prophet Muhammad s.a.w must in addition be obliged to be the heart of Islam, or if not entirely at leas t a component of it? This gives rise to the reality that every mainspring idea in Islam (such as the five pillars, ummah, jihad) is thought of in elevated significance but yet none single-handedly can fit the true hearts of Islam. All either must be combined totally in order to allow the heart of Islam to be formulated or there is something that is of even greater importance, which is veiled yet. If no one thing can be the true heart of Islam then there must be a variety of things which when thought of together make up the ultimate hearts of Islam, (one of which could be mysticism.) Conclusion After evaluating all the evidence drawn upon I have come to the conclusion that Sufism and the mystical experiences are not at the heart of Islam because their negative aspects outweigh their positive aspects, and rather the oneness of Allah (tawhid) is the true heart of Islam. As Syed Hossein Nasr has said in his book The Heart Of Islam, at the heart of Islam stands the reality of God, the one, the absolute, and the infinite. Greater then all we can conceive or imagine, yet closer to us then our jugular vein. Allah is the central reality of Islam in all of its facets, and attestation to this oneness, which is called tawhid, is the axis around which all that is Islamic revolves. The oneness of God is for Muslims not only the heart of their religion, but also that of every authentic religion. The uncontaminated pure and true heart of Islam is to testify to this oneness, using the formula there is no God but God and Muhammad s.a.w is the last messenger of Allah. This testament is not only the heart of Islam as well as the foundation from which all other beliefs and practises of Islam are sought, but it is also the first words a newborn will hear. Bibliography Books- The other side of Sufism by A. Tabari The heart of Islam by Syed Hossein Nasr The mystics of Islam by The basics Islam by Colin Turner Sufism By Sri Swami Sivananda The mystical doctrines and methods of Islam by William Stoddart Websites- Wikipedia Sufism Sufi Islam Muhammad s.a.w Quran
Saturday, September 21, 2019
How hrm contributes to the achievement 1. Investigate how HRM contributes to the achievement of organizational objectives? A. Running a business of any size is the most challenging aspect to identify the best strategy for the organization to achieve the desired objectives. We usually prefer objectives such as increase in sales make money, start up with offers. All these need clarity in organizations intensions. The success of organization depends on clarity of vision, measurable targets, specificity, achievable, and challenging, executable, growth oriented and consistency. Human Resource Management plays a major role in the organization to perform maximum capability in a highly fulfilling manner. Human Resource Management is the main approach for the organizations. The people working individually and collectively together contribute for the achievement of the objectives in the business. It is also termed as personnel management as the process is involved in managing people. Human Resource Management employees people, develop their resources, utilize, maintain, and compensate their services in relation to the organizational requirements. Organizational objectives are typical and require multiple years not less than 3-5 years to achieve the outcome based on annual operations that coincide similarly with a calendar year and organizations operating cycle. Operations objective run under business units, departments, functional areas, teams and individuals etc. Often a combination of financial and nonÃ¢â¬âfinancial measures. When the objectives define goa ls and sub Ã¢â¬â goals, targets will be the larger objectives. Before an organization is setup it needs to examine all the aspects of business equation to reach organizational objectives. The link between organization system and structure is necessary to understand the impacts, effectiveness and efficiency. By setting al the objectives to all the levels of the organization it is possible to get maximum returns on resources and operations. The opportunities presented must be clear, measurable, specific and consistent. The features of Human Resource Management include: 1. Organizational management 2. Personal administration 3. Manpower management 4. Industrial management / Employee Relations. The positive view of the employees virtually contributes to the enterprise productively for the achievement of organizational goals. Human Resource Management is more innovative at work place than the traditional approach. Its unique to express the goals with specificity and provide the resources needed to accomplish the task. Activities take priority in setting the communication of objectives and targets wherein the guidelines and boundaries play a important role. The constraint of an organization requires tradeoffs and evaluation options to determine the capabilities to achieve the specified outcomes. Objectives of an organization depend on core competencies and competitive advantages, current and projected influence on the industry in different environments, Current and future constraints on resource and operations, possibilities, capabilities, probabilities, negativity in opportunities, opportunities that work, needs of an organization, financial position relationship with the cl ients. To develop an organization, the objectives are to be supported by clear understanding of capabilities of the organization, growth of the organization, focus on processes, people, infrastructure, change in environment, completion and other economic factors. Human Resource Management techniques properly practices, can reach the goals and operating process in an organization. It plays a key role in risk reduction within organizations and comprises several processes which can be performed in an HRD when effectively integrated they provide significant economic benefit to the organization. Workforce planning, recruitment, induction, and orientation, skills management, training and development, personal administration, wages, time management, payroll, employee benefits, cost planning, performance appraisal, financial control, client management, should be performed well in advance so that the Human Resource Management contributes its performance towards the objectives for a successful organization. The Human Resource Management should function in every activity and should play a key role in deciding the organizational objectives to fulfill the basic needs ensuring they are on high performance. Dealing with performance issues, independent contractors, hiring employees, are also a part of the above. The activities also include approach to the employee benefits and compensation, employee records and personnel policies. It should always ensure, aware of personnel policies which confirm current regulations in the form of HR manuals. Characteristics are observed in Human Resource Management while developing policies which relate to objectives, functions, physical factors and company matters. Policies should be easily defined, positive, clear and understandable. The different modules in Human Resource Management refer to the system and process at an intersection between Human Resource Management and information technology. The functions of HRM are generally administrative and common i n all organizations. Organizations having formalized selection, evaluation, and payroll process build the company. Efficient and effective management of human capital is a successful way to imperative and complex process. To reduce the manual workload of the administrative activities HRMS Ã¢â¬â Human Resource Management System is introduced. It enables higher administrative control in an organization. The some of the modules are linked below: 1. The payroll module automates the pay process by gathering all the employee data i.e. time, attendance, deductions, taxes, reports. 2. Work time gathers standardized time and work related efforts. This is the most advanced module flexibly provided in data collection methods, cost analysis and efficiency metrics. 3. Benefits and administration modules provides a system for organization to administer and track benefit programs like insurance, compensation, profit sharing and retirement. 4. Human Resource Management module covers many other HR aspects. It addresses Data, Selection, training and development, capabilities, compensation and other related activities. Human Resource Management function involves business based information system. The significant cost incurred in maintaining an organized recruitment effort, cross posting within and cross general competitive exposure developed in a dedicated module called Ã¢â¬â ATS, Applicant Tracking System. Many Organizations develop HRMIS Human Resource Management information system which support recruitment, section, training, job placement, performance appraisal, employee benefit analysis, health safety and security, leadership style, task structure all the factors should be favorable under extreme situations. The aim of Human Resource Management process are typically concerned in managing people which will assist in the achievement of organizational objectives within the strategy formation process. The senior management believes the policies which contribute to the organizational performances. In particular to the HR strategies the outcome of emergent plays a sensible role along with the perceptual understanding of organizational members. Organizational objectives and aims may be interrupted to gain a competitive advantage for an organization by which managerial actions can be combined to peruse important organizational aims. Human R resource Management started with an idea that specific organizational objectives demand appropriate HR strategy responses. Effective Human Resource Management is important for organizational performance and for the experience of employees by means of special line managers and the contribution of Human Resource Management to organization performance. Human Resource Management in large organizations grows larger and technology becomes more advanced in an enterprise. So, a sophisticated procedure has to be implemented. Human Resource Management is a process which provides the knowledge of the key HR levels which are important to key business success, compassions with better performance. Ways of using information to improve HR processes. Organizations are regarded as people management system. They range from hierarchies to complex networks depending on Human Resource Management to adopt strategies which effects both cost effectiveness and employee commitments. Networks and networking have a different number of distinct meanings in Human Resource Management. Organizational Human Resource Management doesnt necessarily have any physical or permanence presence. They can be firmed and reformed to meet the new projects from a HR perspective in a company. Organizational Human Resource Management flexibility includes regular employees in relatively low skill, routine work, low pay who can be trained and utilized their skills for the development. Human Resource Management contributes each of its objectives to every department in the organization for the success. 2. HR Planning and development methods: A. HR planning is about the pattern of planned activities and intends to enable the organization to achieve its goals. Its a vital function that looks at strategy and then deploys the necessary human capital in the organization. It falls into wider area of employee resourcing, planning for acquiring and allocating employees for the organization. Organizations to be more efficient, productive and profitable must promote their goals. It means that the organization must undergo change in the design of the work to be performed in the organization, selection, management and training of the employees to work. Human Resource strategy is the activity focused on the frame work for the change process which will be line of success. Human resource planning process is a stage that has to be established and implemented which is dynamic, iterative and serves to integrate all plans and the component of change process. HR Planning and tracking is constantly updated, analyzed and reports are prepared to support the process of selection, training, development and motivation. Human resource planning details about the strategy needs of the organization assessing the supply of the relevant employee to fulfill the staffing needs. The strategic objectives needs to be clearly distinguished followed and processed in realistic and congruent way in order to achieve targets. The strategic planning process should be in chain reaction from objectives, analysis, strategy formulation, implementation, control. For large corporations, strategy is related to the portfolio of business. Organizations are effected by labor demand; therefore formulating a strategy should be enhanced for the strengths and weakness of the workforce. Strategic plans can be implemented if the organization is staffed with number and a type of HRs to provide necessary skills, knowledge, abilities etc. Human resource planning is involved in implementation as the major risk will be on reallocating the employees. Successful planning in companies can make and implement better strategies. Human resource planning with many HR practices is done by central HR department, line managers who will do a large part of planning for their requirement towards the workforce. A central HR department is involved in the process in varying degree of different levels. The Human resource planning process is comprised of three broad keys: 1. Strength and weakness of current workforce in regard to number and skills of the employees. 2. Get a clear strategic plan. 3. Alterations in the current staff if required. The Human resource planning process is of four steps: 1. Strategic plans and resultant design of the organization to be decided. 2. Organizations determination towards labor demand in short and long terms. 3. Effective and continuous filling and staffing needs. 4. Staffing plans implementation. The Objective of Human resource planning is employee needs at every level. The design of the company will determine the production orientation if necessary. Autonomous work teams require multi skilled staffing in hierarchical organizations. Human resource planning framework requires forecasting. Human resource planning includes forecasting labor demand arising from strategy objectives and its methods, organizational supply capabilities, accessing adequacy of current staff, strategy staffing goals and plans, affirmative action plan which requires designated employees to achieve employment equity, employment affirmative action measures in group teams. The so called man power planning is one of the most important step in Human resource planning. Forecasting and prospective studies are the recent trends in Human resource planning concerning employment and skills. A comprehensive economic planning process is to achieve a certain balance between the manpower needs. A forecast is a assessment made with certain degree of probability planning consists of desired future and the achievement of goals. Human resource planning is in right number people with right skills at right place at right time to implement organizational strategies in order to achieve organizational objectives. In corporate and business level strategies Human resource planning is a process of analyzing an organizations human resource and developing its plans, policies and system, setting human resource objectives and planning how to meet them is crucial for smooth functioning. HR should ensure the supply of demands to be classified and performed. HR process interfering with strategies planning and scanning process has to be implemented. HR should be examined, Huma n resource demands should be forecasted and the supply of HR from within the organization in the external labor market also needs to be concluded. Later forecast of demand and supply has to be compared in accordance to actions needed to deal with anticipated shortage of overages. All the above info needs to be stored in the strategic planning process. Basic Human resource planning model describes below: Organizational objectives HR Requirements HR Planning Feasibility analysis. HR objectives are linked to Organizational objectives and planning and designed to ensure consistency between organizations strategic planning process and Human resource planning process. Objective of strategic plans are feasible and require HR goals. Need to ensure that the Human resource planning process are coordinated and allowed to meet its HR requirements in the organization. The major demand to be determined is labor requirements which involves forecasting HR needs based on organizational objectives. It also involves consideration of alternative ways of organizing job designs. The other factors that has to be examined is determination of HR supply i.e. availability. It involves forecasting or predicting effect of various HR programs for employees flowing into the organization. It has to be determined how the existing programs are performed. It needs to know the capability of various programs and its combinations. The determination should also be capable of doing knowledge requ irement of the programs that fit together in external environment constraints labor unions, technology skills and internal environment constraints like skill shortages within the organization, financial resources, managerial attitudes, culture, and work environment. The difficulty in quantifying costs and benefits has to be checked while planning and has to be revised as per requirement. Oversimplification of planning process doesnt normally proceeds till first acceptable plan for the best HR goal. The benefits of planning has value and is usually less rational and may omit or lack knowledge required for forecasting incorrect assumptions about effectiveness of HR programs shouldnt engage in strategic planning. Though the present HR system has changed it should have the capability of change resistance. Human resource planning should be as a guide and co-ordinate all HR activities to work together and support overall strategy. Human resource planning should be representative to internal and external environment as mentioned in advance. The process of Human resource planning comprises of HR forecasting which is a process of projecting the organizations future, HR needs and how it meets in ordinance with organizations policies and environmental conditions which it operates. Without forecasting Human resource planning cannot access the difference between supply and demand. The internal supply may be in the form of staffing capabilities, productivity changes, promotions, demotions, transfer and turn over. External supply may be employees, requirements, mobility, entry level openings, recruitments, compensation. Human resource planning when planned, the following needs to be carefully planned: Organizational and unit strategy plans Size of the organization Staff and managerial support Organizational design Sophistication Time frame Objective Organization size ( Large organizations require more complex forecasting syatems and require skill staff) Complexity ( Diverse career path and skill requirements) Organizational objectives (greater the difference between current HR system and desired HR system) Plans and Strategies ( Complex plans the complex forecast system) Factors creating uncertainty Factors promoting stability Lack of expertise Inadequate HR data Available objective methods Regression analysis Programming Succession planning Human Resource Development is one of the main pillar considering both the scope and position of a company for its professionalism. The companies aspire to create development by training which meets economic requirements of the organization. It is necessary for an organization to develop every sector by means of considerable changes for the projects to end up with profits. Development of Human resources means opportunity never occurring before, at the same time new challenges. Human Resource Development is a framework which helps employees develop their organizational and personal skills, abilities. Human Resource Management includes opportunities in employee training, career development, planning, employee identification, and organizational development. The main focus is on superior workforce and individual employee to accomplish the task. Healthy organizations conduct trainings for better work environment by means of: 1. OJT Ã¢â¬â On Job Training, where a employee learns while doing job. It is also called as hands on training. Team lead is responsible for training the employee on knowledge and skills. OJT can be cost effective. The feedback during the training is immediate so that the employee may experience faster growth and carry on the task work. 2. Off the Job Training Ã¢â¬â The employee location will be outside the business are to learn skills and knowledge. It includes demonstrations, role plays, self study, external courses. The employee is temporarily sent for the training from routine work place. 3. In House Training Ã¢â¬â It depends on the quality and skills of an employee which improve performance and productivity that business requires. 4. Management Training Ã¢â¬â It includes workshop training, training on managing skills, guidance on communicating and motivating employees, interview and selecting, retention strategies, employment law issues, performance evaluation. 3. Analyze ways in which performance of HR may be enhanced. A. Every organization has an operations function, the goal and purpose of most organizations includes production of its output. It has to produce resources, convert them into outputs and distribute in the market for the users. It comprises of all the activities required to create and deliver an organizations clients and customers. Operations are usually a major functional area where people are specifically designated of their responsibilities for managing all or part or all of the organizations management. It plays a crucial role in determining a well organization with satisfactory measures. In private sector companies the operation function is expressed in terms of profits, growth and competitiveness. Its also concerned with design management and improvement of the system that reaches the organizational goals. Finance and HR should be strong enough for a successful organization. Performance of HR is enhanced by many factors. Performance Appraisal: It is also called as employee appraisal in which the job performance of an employee is evaluated in terms of equity of work, quantity of work, cost effectiveness, time frame. It is a part of development of career. Performance appraisals are regular reviews done once in 6 months or twice a year or once a year depending on the organizations capability and policies. The aim of performance appraisal is to give feedback on the employee performance, identify employee training needs, organizational rewards, salary increase, promotions, discipline etc., provide opportunity on organizational development, communication between employees and administration, equal employment opportunity requirements. Performance appraisal is assessed on a numerical or scaling rating system, PMS Ã¢â¬â performance management system where the managers were asked to fill in the PMS form which shows the roles and responsibilities of an employee with that of its rating. The managers were also asked to score an individual against a number of objectives, roles and responsibilities performed during the given tenure. Employees receive self assessment forms from the managers, peers, subordinates which is know as 360 degree appraisals The methods that are used in Performance appraisal are: 1. Management by objectives: Performance appraisal in this method depends on objectives in which the management and employees agree and understand. 2. 360 degree appraisal: Performance appraisal depends on the feedback provided by superiors, managers and peers. 3. Behavioral observation scale: Performance appraisal depends on the behavior of an employee versus observation of the supervision and rating given. Judgment made by senior management and reports made by students are also valuable sources of information in many areas of learning and development. Peer judgment are especially useful in assessing personal Ã¢â¬â social development and self report methods. The appraisal system consists of: Student judgment and reports Peer recognition Self report techniques Attitudes measurement Interest inventories Personality measures Basing on Appraisal system job evaluation is done by three basic methods: 1. Ranking Method: This is the simplest method of job evaluation. Jobs are arranged from highest to lowest merit in the organization. The jobs are examined as a whole rather than basis of important factors in the job. Top level jobs have the highest value bottom level the lowest value. Ranking is done in each department and then organizational ranking is performed. As per ranking method the variation in the salaries of employees is seen depending on variation of the nature of the job performed by the employees. It is best practiced in small organizations and big organizations. It is highly objective in nature and is more scientific and fruitful way. Example: Array of Jobs according to the Ranking Method Rank Monthly salaries 1. Accountant Rs 3,000 2. Accounts clerk Rs 1,800 3. Purchase assistant Rs 1,700 4. Machine-operator Rs 1,400 5. Typist Rs 900 6. Office boy Rs 600 The variation in payment of salaries depends on the variation of the nature of the job performed by the employees. The ranking method is simple to understand and practice and it is best suited for a small organization. Its simplicity, however, works to its disadvantage in big organizations because rankings are difficult to develop in a large, complex organization. Moreover, this kind of ranking is highly subjective in nature and may offend many employees. Therefore, a more scientific and fruitful way of job evaluation is called for. 2. Job Classification method: A predetermination of job groups is established and jobs are assigned according to the classification. It may include office, clerical, managerial, personnel etc. The below is the description: Class I: Executives, Office managers, Deputy Office managers, Office, superintendent, department superiors etc. Class II: Skilled workers Class III: Semi skilled workers Class IV: sub semiskilled workers This method is less subjective and easy to practice. It takes into account all the factors of a job. The weaknesses of the job classification method are: Even when the requirements of different jobs differ, they may be combined into a single category, depending on the status a job carries. It is difficult to write all-inclusive descriptions of a grade. The method oversimplifies sharp differences between different jobs and different grades. When individual job descriptions and grade descriptions do not match well, the evaluators have the tendency to classify the job using their subjective judgments. 3. Factor comparison method: It is more systematic and scientific method and is consistent and appreciable. Under this method each job is ranked according to a series of factors which include mental effort, physical effort, skill needed. Supervisory responsibility, working conditions and other relevant factors. Below are the factors: Job representing wages, salary levels across the organization according to the department. Job evaluation factors are to be examined. Selected jobs should be ranked. Determination of wages. 4. Point Method: This method is currently used and expressed in terms of key factors in order of importance. Jobs with similar point totals are placed in similar pay grades. The factors are below: Identify the factors such as skill, effort, responsibility. Divide each major factor as sub factors. The merits and demerits are: Merits: Analytical and objective. Reliable and valid as each job is compared with all other jobs in terms of key factors. Money values are assigned in a fair way based on an agreed rank order fixed by the job evaluation committee. Flexible as there is no upper limitation on the rating of a factor. Demerits: Difficult to understand, explain and operate. Its use of the same criteria to assess all jobs is questionable as jobs differ across and within organizations. Time consuming and costly. Maximum number no points assigned to each job help in finding the relative worth of a job and therefore the total points are expressed which are converted into money value according to wage rates. The point method is widely used in evaluating jobs and it is superior. It looks into all key factors and sub factors of a job. It is systematic and reliable way. Job evaluation is an internal equity that assesses and rewards the goals of the organization. It is not based on the credentials or contributions made by the employee but systematic process is determined. Job evaluation involves: Job analysis Ã¢â¬â collecting and evaluating; Job documentation Ã¢â¬â Job content is recorded; Job rating Ã¢â¬â compares job and evaluation methodology; and Job hierarchy Ã¢â¬â Depends on the ranking list of employees in the organization for each position. Motivation and job satisfaction are two important factors that affect the work environment of an employee. Motivation is from or within the drive to excel. Job satisfaction is the pleasure desired, appreciated and valuable. The strategies of addressing underperformance are unlikely that management, in an organization states that these are no subsidiaries, plants, outlets underperformance. The underperformance and length of time that is used before is addressed to determine the share price and future plans. The range of options open are to be understood which involve exiting from market subsidiaries refraining options need to be considered and evaluated to avoid breakdown in communication. Employee satisfaction is important. It has to be considered so that the employee working for organization is satisfied with the options and opportunities given to them. It is a terminology used to describe whether the employees are happy and fulfilling their desires, needs at work. This is measured by surveys periodically in areas such as management and team work.
Friday, September 20, 2019
A Clockwork Orange A Movie AnalysisÃ Ã Ã Ã In 1962, Anthony Burgess' novel A Clockwork Orange was published for the first time. This novel was an anti-utopian fable about the near future, where teenage gangs habitually terrorize the inhabitants of a shabby metropolis. The novel deals with the main focus that man is a sinner but not sufficiently a sinner to deserve the calamities that are heaped upon him. It is a comic novel about a man's tragic lot. (Bergonzi 152). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In 1971, Stanley Kubrick turned Burgess' novel into a 136 minute, color motion picture produced by Warner Brothers. The movie starred Malcolm McDowell as the young gangster guilty of rape and murder. Kubrick was both writer and director. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Stanley Kubrick was born July 26, 1928 in the Bronx, New York. He is an accomplished director with other ground breaking movies under his belt, such as The Shining, Paths of Glory, and 2001 A Space Odyssey. His films have one common theme- the dehumanization of mankind. He is also known for his symmetric image composition and long "zooming out" and/or "zooming in" sequences. Kubrick constructs three-way conflicts and utilizes the techinique of extreme close-ups of intensely emotional faces. An interesting note is that Kubrick often uses the number 114 in his movies. In Clockwork Orange, Alex is given "Serum 114" when he undergoes Ludovico treatment. (Internet Movie Database 1) Some critics claim that it is due to the brilliance of Kubrick that Clockwork Orange was so successful. In his book The Science Fiction and Fantasy Handbook, Alan Frank writes, "Had the movie been the work of a lesser film maker, it is unlikely that it would have had the reception it receive d; as it is, [Kubrick's] brutalization of Burgess... ...reated a controversial film that brought the novel of Anthony Burgess to life. The violence and rapes were forced on the watcher and the nature of mankind as a sinner was driven into the minds of those who sat through the 136 minute film. Bibliography A Clockwork Orange . Beck, Michael and Thomas Waites. Cineman Syndicate. 1979. Received from America Online on April 18, 1997. Bergonzi, Bernard, Contemporary Novelists.1976. Cohen, Alexander J., Clockwork Orange and the Aestheticization of Violence. Accessed April 28, 1997 from the A Clockwork Orange homepage. Gottlieb, Sidney, Masterplots II.1987. Shipman, David. A Pictorial History of Science Fiction Films. In and Out of this World. Hamlyn Publishing, Middlesex, 1985. Utting, Bryce. A Clockwork Orange discussion notes. Accessed April 25, 1997 from A Clockwork Orange home page. Ã
Thursday, September 19, 2019
This speech is bigger than me... bigger than this graduating class... and the world surrounding us. It is an epiphany. This speech is for the little guy, the middle man and the guy who is always behind the scenes... For the past four years, we have seen stories, read newspaper articles, and have heard announcements about our star athletes, scholars and over achievers. Although it is undeniable that they have left their footprints at County High by trying incessantly to better themselves, as you are on the brink of adulthood, you can't help but ask yourself, "What about me?" What about my effort to just get by? We speak, but our voices are silent, our contributions go seemingly unnoticed, and our greatest effort is just good enough. Although this lifestyle of mediocrity is not extravagant by society's standards, all of you should be proud to be here because you may be the first person in your family to graduate high school, be going on to college, or the first aspiring to break the cycle. And even though this day may be a small step to others, this may be the most important step of YOUR life. Appreciate the fact that you are setting the path for others who may be just like you following in your footsteps or climbing the same exact ladder you have climbed. Because of these inspirational acts, we are in fact the movers and shakers of America. While some by-standers are looking down at the field upon us, seeing teenagers who appear to be out of control, irresponsible and impossible, at the same time, a child is looking up to us seeking inspiration and validation... because to them, we are their only hope as we let down our guards when we become one society welcomed into another. Adulthood ladies and gentlemen!!! Today is a turning point for each and every one of us. While we sit on this field, we are in essence standing up to our fears of feeling inferior, and letting our true colors shine. Today is a day to be proud of yourself and each other. Today is your day to show everyone your true self. In a way, every person is the average Joe, because each step that we take, each move that we make, and each word that we utter, will somehow affect the life of another... and that is not average.
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
We Need Crime Prevention, Not the Death Penalty For most crimes committed in the United States a fine, sentence of time in jail or execution is the punishment. However, the death penalty is the most questionable punishment. Is it morally right? Is it effective in deterring crime, primarily murders? Weather or not you agree if it is moral or not, one issue remains. The death penalty is not an effective way to deter crime. The death penalty has existed as long as humans have existed. The quote "an eye for an eye" is found in the Bible. In the middle ages fines, public humiliation and imprisonment were appropriate punishments for all crimes, and death penalty for all murders. Today, Federal law states that the death penalty is to be enforced with convicted criminals for: treason; deserting armed forces during wartime; murder committed by a soldier; kidnapping and murder that involves crossing state lines; murder committed during an airplane hijacking; and of course, homicide. The death penalty is also called for punishment of for: attempting to kill anyone investigating or prosecuting his or her activities; advising, directing, authorizing or assisting in the murder of someone. Also, The Anti-Drug abuse act of 1988 calls for the death penalty for all drug related killings. Along with that, The bill amending sec. 848 to controlled substances act calls for the death penalty or life imprisonment for certain drug offences possession of 10 or more kg of heroin, cocaine, phencyclidine or analogue. Added to that, The drug kingpin act sates the use of death penalty for convicted major drug dealers caught with huge quantities of drugs, over 66 lbs. of heroin and 330 lbs. of cocaine. Even though there are these federal laws requiring the use of the death penalty for the crimes, State laws only consider one crime, murder, to be a capital offense. In the United States alone there have been 4047 executions since 1930, and 188 were from 1977-1996. In 1996, there were a total of 15,168,100 arrests; 33,050 for forcible rape; 1,506,200 involving drug violations and 19,020 for murder and non-negligent manslaughter. The death penalty was enforced 45 times. The death penalty is an expensive punishment, since 1976 the united states have spent 700 million dollars in it. Methods of the death pen... ...s no effect on the deteration of crimes. Statistics show that there is no relationship between the number of crimes committed in death penalty states and the number of crimes committed in non-death penalty states. While a majority of people believes the death penalty is a good punishment for crimes, they do not believe it helps get rid of and prevent crime. Other methods such as increased police officers and a decrease on the availability of handguns are 2 of many alternatives in prevention crimes. Enforcing a harsh punishment for committing a crime is not an effective way to prevent it from happening. Preventing crimes from happening is the most effective way to deter crime. Bibliography "Crimes, Politics and Race" Harvard Journal of law and Public Policy Winter 1997: pg. 405 "Death Penalty Information Center", 1997 http://www.esential.org/dpic/dpic.html (8 Feb. 1998) Nardo, Don Death Penalty San Diego: Lucent Books Inc, 1992 Wekesser, Carol The Death Penalty: Opposing Viewpoints. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 1991 World Almanac and Book of Facts 1998 Mahwah, NJ: world Almanac and Book of Facts, 1997 We need crime prevention, not the death penalty Essay -- essays resear We Need Crime Prevention, Not the Death Penalty For most crimes committed in the United States a fine, sentence of time in jail or execution is the punishment. However, the death penalty is the most questionable punishment. Is it morally right? Is it effective in deterring crime, primarily murders? Weather or not you agree if it is moral or not, one issue remains. The death penalty is not an effective way to deter crime. The death penalty has existed as long as humans have existed. The quote "an eye for an eye" is found in the Bible. In the middle ages fines, public humiliation and imprisonment were appropriate punishments for all crimes, and death penalty for all murders. Today, Federal law states that the death penalty is to be enforced with convicted criminals for: treason; deserting armed forces during wartime; murder committed by a soldier; kidnapping and murder that involves crossing state lines; murder committed during an airplane hijacking; and of course, homicide. The death penalty is also called for punishment of for: attempting to kill anyone investigating or prosecuting his or her activities; advising, directing, authorizing or assisting in the murder of someone. Also, The Anti-Drug abuse act of 1988 calls for the death penalty for all drug related killings. Along with that, The bill amending sec. 848 to controlled substances act calls for the death penalty or life imprisonment for certain drug offences possession of 10 or more kg of heroin, cocaine, phencyclidine or analogue. Added to that, The drug kingpin act sates the use of death penalty for convicted major drug dealers caught with huge quantities of drugs, over 66 lbs. of heroin and 330 lbs. of cocaine. Even though there are these federal laws requiring the use of the death penalty for the crimes, State laws only consider one crime, murder, to be a capital offense. In the United States alone there have been 4047 executions since 1930, and 188 were from 1977-1996. In 1996, there were a total of 15,168,100 arrests; 33,050 for forcible rape; 1,506,200 involving drug violations and 19,020 for murder and non-negligent manslaughter. The death penalty was enforced 45 times. The death penalty is an expensive punishment, since 1976 the united states have spent 700 million dollars in it. Methods of the death pen... ...s no effect on the deteration of crimes. Statistics show that there is no relationship between the number of crimes committed in death penalty states and the number of crimes committed in non-death penalty states. While a majority of people believes the death penalty is a good punishment for crimes, they do not believe it helps get rid of and prevent crime. Other methods such as increased police officers and a decrease on the availability of handguns are 2 of many alternatives in prevention crimes. Enforcing a harsh punishment for committing a crime is not an effective way to prevent it from happening. Preventing crimes from happening is the most effective way to deter crime. Bibliography "Crimes, Politics and Race" Harvard Journal of law and Public Policy Winter 1997: pg. 405 "Death Penalty Information Center", 1997 http://www.esential.org/dpic/dpic.html (8 Feb. 1998) Nardo, Don Death Penalty San Diego: Lucent Books Inc, 1992 Wekesser, Carol The Death Penalty: Opposing Viewpoints. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 1991 World Almanac and Book of Facts 1998 Mahwah, NJ: world Almanac and Book of Facts, 1997
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
Sometimes in life when we have an experience that deeply affects us, it can change our whole perspective. The story Ã¢â¬Å"The Thing in the forestÃ¢â¬ is a example of how this can happen. The two main characters Penny and Primrose meet when they are children and share a horrific experience in the forest. Then by chance meet back at the scene and briefly reassure one another that what happened really did happen. But their contact ends there once again almost as if seeing each other was too uncomfortable. Then oddly enough both women end up going back to the forest looking for some kind of resolve. In Ã¢â¬Å"The Thing in the ForestÃ¢â¬ the two little girls encounter a terrifying creature that profoundly affects their sense of reality; this results in similar personal traits and shared sense of searching for whatÃ¢â¬â¢s real despite that they never talk of it. When the two girls meet not much is given about their characters, however throughout the story we find that the two ladies have quite a few things in common. This is due to their experience in the forest that they shared so long ago. Some of the similarities are within their character and some are sheer coincidence. Neither woman has married probably because of their disrupted childhood when they were exiled from their families and sent to live in the Ã¢â¬Å"great houseÃ¢â¬ by the woods until it was safe again at home (Byatt). This is when Penny and Primrose decide to go into the woods and are followed by a younger girl who is never seen again. The girls encounter a creature that smelled of Ã¢â¬Å"liquid putrefactionÃ¢â¬ and looked like a mixture of Ã¢â¬Å"rank meat and decaying vegetationÃ¢â¬ (Byatt). The wake of the creature leaves Ã¢â¬Å"a trail of bloody slime and dead vegetationÃ¢â¬ in which the younger girl disappears (Byatt). Then the very next day the girls are placed with temporary families. Once home again both girls fathers die in accidents. PennyÃ¢â¬â¢s father died in a firefighting accident and Primroses was a causality of the war as he was soldier. The experience of being exiled, their fathers sudden deaths and and seeing this terrifying creature that possibly killed the younger girl has hanged their sense of what is real, IÃ¢â¬â¢m sure the concept of love and relationship is very easily questioned for the both of them. Both women also have chosen jobs that work with children; Penny becomes a child psychologist dealing mostly dealing in the dreams of children and Primrose among her other odd jobs becomes a childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s story time teller at the local mall. Both women are embroiled with children and their minds just on different ends of the spectrum. One lis tens and one tells. When Penny and Primrose meet by quirk of fate back at the Ã¢â¬Å"great houseÃ¢â¬ , that has now been given to the nation and made in to a museum, they are taken aback by the unplanned visit. They become aware of each other while reading a description of a story in a book about a fabled worm like creature that supposedly lurked in the woods near by. The alarm of the story and the by chance meeting of the two women while simultaneously reading its historic description jolts the two. They feel as if they would have never recognized each other if it werenÃ¢â¬â¢t for the given situation. They reassure each other that they both really did see the creature that it is real. The women remark on how strange it is that the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s presence during the exile is not depicted anywhere in the history of the house. This lack of mention about the children in exile ever being in the house reaffirms some of the question of what is real in the two womenÃ¢â¬â¢s minds. They decide on having some tea and reminisce a little more about the time they spent in exile, on the train, in the Ã¢â¬Å"great houseÃ¢â¬ , brief tidbits of their life and the younger girl named Alys who had disappeared. It did finish her off, that little one, didnÃ¢â¬â¢t it? Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I wonder if weÃ¢â¬â¢d made her up,Ã¢â¬ said Primrose. Ã¢â¬Å"Nobody ever asked where she was or looked for her,Ã¢â¬ said Penny (Byatt). The women are slightly relived at their agreement because this gives them the assurance they need not to feel as if they made the whole thing up. The assumed death of the you nger girl could be said to mirror the psychological death of Penny and Primrose, and this reassurance helps them feel as if they can finally move on. This brief conversation between the two is the last contact they will have with each other. The women both decide not to honor the dinner date they planed, I believe at this point the Penny and Primrose feel any further contact with each other is unbearable because of the underlying memories of any supplementary conversation. Yet they are still searching for what is real within them selves. Searching to the extent that both women are drawn back in to the woods and for the same reason. Primrose goes to the woods with purpose; she even follows the same path from years ago. Primrose had really been in a magic forest. She knew that the forest was a source of terrorÃ¢â¬ (Byatt). While in the forest she questions what is real in her life, her home and how her mother disclosed that her father had been killed. She resolves that the forest and what happened in it to be truly real. In all of her thinking she decides she is satisfied and in turn wants to go home. The way Primrose views this experience and the woods around her in a story like fashion is very telling about why she deals in storytelling for a job. It all comes from the same place and this is why she has always careful not to scare the children she reads to. Penny on the other hand ends up in the forest even after purposely walking in the opposite direction of their original path. She is very perceptive of her surroundings in a different way than Primrose, who feels the need to almost coach herself along in a story like fashion, whereas Penny was looking for signs of the creature. She looked for all things that would be concrete evidence of the creature. It was the encounter with the thing that led her to deal professionally in dreams. Something that resembled unreality that had lumbered into reality, and she had seen itÃ¢â¬ (Byatt). Penny believed she could feel the creature and decided that it chose to recede back into the forest. She also spent some time thinking of her own father and how when he died her mother became a recluse, seeing this reaction scared her emotionally. This is the reason she threw herself in to study and possibly never married. At the end of it all this women still do not converse or sit with one another when taking the same train home. They just share an acknowledgeable stare at the train station then go their separate ways. Primrose goes home and back to work but with a new confidence, she decides to tell the story of Ã¢â¬Å"The Thing in the ForestÃ¢â¬ she is no longer afraid. Penny goes back to the woods with the conviction that she needs this, for this creature to come to her because it has become the most real thing she can recognize. Ã¢â¬Å"She was readyÃ¢â¬ and waiting for it (Byatt). Despite how different these women are, they are one in the same. Penny and Primrose shared something awful that forever changed them in very similar ways. They also shared separate experiences in the same forest and came to the same realizations that the creature is real and it had affected their person emotionally and steered their paths throughout life. It is apparent to me that that these similarities the women share cannot be a coincidence but are a direct result of that horrifying day they saw Ã¢â¬Å"The Thing in the ForestÃ¢â¬ .
Monday, September 16, 2019
As I reflect upon my life I will describe facts and events believed to have contributed to the person I am today. I like how Merriam WebsterÃ¢â¬â¢s online dictionary explains experience as something personally encountered, undergone, or lived through. I have encountered difficulties, circumstances, and triumphs that have helped me to grow as a person. I am pursuing a higher education as my future goal. In this paper, I will apply theories from Adult Development and Life Assessment in my explanation of challenges I have faced during childhood to adulthood. I was born in Chicago, one of six girls and the middle child of twelve. As early as I can remember we worked as a group. We played together and we worked in the garden that my parents made in our back yard. I hated the garden because every time I wanted to go play, I first had pick vegetables out of the garden. I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t understand at the time that my parents used the garden to help feed our large family. My dad always worked two jobs; his primary employment was with a company called Central Soya. When my father retired from there we moved to Alabama because the cost of living was cheaper. We didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have a lot of material things like clothes and shoes. My mother would buy tennis shoes from the grocery store and my brothers would be so embarrassed because their friends saw them trying on the shoes in the store. I can remember my dad making me a pair of pants for school; I thought they were the prettiest pair of pants I had ever seen. It was cheaper to make a pair of pants than to buy them. My parents cut corners any way they could. We may not have had material things but what we did have was love and lots of talent. Not real talent but talent thatÃ¢â¬â¢s appreciated in a family. On rainy days mom and dad would have us put on a talent show. It was so much fun that we kept the tradition even until adulthood. On birthdays and holidays we would use our talents to entertain mom and dad. Birthdays were especially special because my dad would make me a birthday cake. He was a really good cook and everyone in the neighborhood wanted a piece of his cake. My sixteenth birthday marked a significant shift in my life. I became pregnant and it was one of the biggest mistakes that started a downward spiral in my life. I hung out with older girls that had children. They were into partying and so called having a good time. Our environment plays a huge role in how we develop, what pathways are open to us, and which are closed (Witt, G.A., & Mossler, R. A. (2010). I feel like the environment that I chose to be in led to early exploration of drugs and alcohol. I could see myself going in the wrong direction with more terrible consequences if I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t make a change. I stopped hanging out and got my first job. It was on a military base in the mess hall. I met a soldier and we got married on our way to work one day when I was twenty one years old. We dated for four months then he went overseas for a year. We married a year later after he returned to the states. Being married was a challenge because he was abusive physically, verbally, and mentally. I had listened to his insults for so long that they became part of my own vocabulary. I began to think that maybe he was right, maybe if I could cook, clean, dress or talk better it would fix our problems. In our text Freud believed that the mind uses defense mechanism to protect itself from severe distress. In the beginning I rationalized everything he did, in rationalization: we look for an acceptable reason to justify our thinking or behavior (Witt & Mossler 2010). I got involved in church and accepted the Lord Jesus Christ as my savior. As a result I think a lot of the abusive behavior was able to continue because I simply forgave, thinking it was the Christian thing to do. According to Haan (1977), coping strategies involve choice and purposive behavior, are oriented toward reality, involve differentiated thinking that integrates conscious and preconscious aspects, and permit affective satisfaction in an open, ordered, and tempered way (Psychology and Aging 2000 ). It came to a point after seventeen years of abuse I couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t take it anymore. I had done all that I could physically to have a successful marriage but it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t working out for me. I had to face the cruel reality that my marriage was over. Finally I filed for a divorce, which was one of the scariest things I have ever done in my life. Going through the divorce gave me a sense of freedom and strength that I had never experienced in my marriage. Getting a divorced was the best thing I could have done for myself. It started me on a journey to find out what I want out of life for myself. It marked a new beginning to a better, brighter future in my life. I was free to make my own decisions that impact my life. One of those decisions was returning to school for a degree. I really want to be an example to my daughter and her children that education is the key to success, and you are never too old to be successful in life. I must admit that I was very afraid of returning to school because I thought that I would not be successful. I thought that I wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be able to remember things or comprehend how to do the work. Some researchers contend that intellectual functioning is a process of irreversible decline. However, most scholars agree that intelligence either remains relatively stable through the adult years, with substantial intellectual changes occurring only very late in life, or that intelligence declines in some respects, remains stable in others, and may even increase in some functions, depending on a personÃ¢â¬â¢s educational level, life experiences, and overall health (Intelligence and Aging 2007). I am now encouraged to pursue my education. IÃ¢â¬â¢m not too old, I plan to finish my courses and earn my degree. My goal is to apply for higher positions that require a degree. There will be many opportunities open to me once I earn my degree in my field of study. In conclusion, I have shared different experiences that have influenced my personal life. I have used theories from this class to support my experiences and I have shared my future plans to achieve my academic goals. Every lesson I complete moves me one step closer to my goal. References Intelligence and Aging (2007) Learning in Adulthood: A Comprehensive Guide. Retrieved from http://www.credoreference.com/entry/wileyla/intelligence-and-aging Witt, G. A., Mossler, R.A., (2010). Adult Development Retrieved from http://content.ashford. edu /AUPYS202.10.1 Vief, G. L., Diehl, M., (2000) Cognitive complexity and cognitive-affective integration. Psychology and Aging. Vol.15 (3) US: American Psychological Association pp. 490 -504.doi:10.1037/0882-79126.96.36.1990
Sunday, September 15, 2019
Play is characterized by behaviors that are intrinsically motivated and self initiated. It is a process oriented, non-literal and pleasurable activity. it also has other characteristics as being exploratory, among other things (Fromberg, 2002). Play is an encompassing activity that affects the physical (Frost et al. 2001), social (Murata & Maeda, 2002), emotional and cognitive development of the child. (Murata & Maeda, 2002) Children spend an ample of their time playing. Children interact with their peers and parents most time by playing with them. A lot of their interaction with their parents builds their intellectual prowess. They learn to build social bonds with their family. (Rivkin 1995) . Moreover, interacting with their peers help them to become individuals that are completely incorporated into the society. Interaction with their colleagues sometimes brings about traumatic experiences like inflicting bodily wounds. The effect of what they do might linger with them for the rest of their lives. However sweet the playing experience could be, it can also be nasty. Aside from sharpening the physical and mental agility of a child, playing can also bring upon them serious medical emergencies as a result of accidents. Although play is an important part of sociological interaction, it is one of the major ways by which children learn role playing. Playing is also a way by which children keep themselves healthy. (Murata & Maeda, 2002) Play is good for the children but in order for it to bring out the desired results, it must be in the right environment (Rivkin 1995). The environment must be attractive enough to facilitate the play so as to encourage the action. In selecting play objects for children, it is important to consider their abilities and temperament so as not to inadvertently hand them tools that they can use in inflicting bodily harm to themselves and their peers. Also, they must play under the supervision of an older adult to monitor their activities. Play is pleasurable, it is good for the development of the child but it must not be allowed to get out of hand.
Saturday, September 14, 2019
Time Line of Education History of American Education Edu 324 Hernandez Karen Lane 4 March 2013 1647 The General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony decrees that every town of fifty families should have an elementary school and that every town of 100 families should have a Latin school. The goal is to ensure that Puritan children learn to read the Bible and receive basic information about their Calvinist religion. 1779 Thomas Jefferson proposes a two-track educational system, with different tracks in his words for Ã¢â¬Å"the laboring and the learned. Scholarship would allow a very few of the laboring class to advance, Jefferson says, by Ã¢â¬Å"raking a few geniuses from the rubbish. Ã¢â¬ 1785 The Continental Congress passes a law calling for a survey of the Ã¢â¬Å"Northwest TerritoryÃ¢â¬ which included what was to become the state of Ohio. The law created Ã¢â¬Å"townships,Ã¢â¬ reserving a portion of each township for a local school. From these Ã¢â¬Å"land grantsÃ¢â¬ even tually came the U. S. system of Ã¢â¬Å"land grant universities,Ã¢â¬ the state public universities that exist today. 1790Pennsylvania state constitution calls for free public education but only for poor children. It is expected that rich people will pay for their children's schooling. 1805 New York Public School Society formed by wealthy businessmen to provide education for poor children. Schools are run on the Ã¢â¬Å"LancasterianÃ¢â¬ model, in which one Ã¢â¬Å"masterÃ¢â¬ can teach hundreds of students in a single room. The master gives a rote lesson to the older students, who then pass it down to the younger students. These schools emphasize discipline and obedience qualities that factory owners want in their workers. 817 A petition presented in the Boston Town Meeting calls for establishing of a system of free public primary schools. Main support comes from local merchants, businessmen and wealthier artisans. Many wage earners oppose it, because they don't want to pay the taxes. 1820 First public high school in the U. S. , Boston English, opens. 1827 Massachusetts passes a law making all grades of public school open to all pupils free of charge. 1830s By this time, most southern states have laws forbidding teaching people in slavery to read.Even so, around 5 percent become literate at great personal risk. 1820-1860 3. 1 million immigrants arrive a number equal to one eighth of the entire U. S. population. Owners of industry needed a docile, obedient workforce and look to public schools to provide it. 1837 Horace Mann becomes head of the newly formed Massachusetts State Board of Education. Edmund Dwight, a major industrialist, thinks a state board of education was so important to factory owners that he offered to supplement the state salary with extra money of his own. 840s Over a million Irish immigrants arrive in the United States. Irish Catholics in New York City struggle for local neighborhood control of schools as a way of preventing their childr en from being force-fed a Protestant curriculum. 1848 Massachusetts Reform School at Westboro opens, where children who have refused to attend public schools are sent. This begins a long tradition of Ã¢â¬Å"reform schools,Ã¢â¬ which combine the education and juvenile justice systems. 1851 State of Massachusetts passes first its compulsory education law.The goal is to make sure that the children of poor immigrants get Ã¢â¬Å"civilizedÃ¢â¬ and learn obedience and restraint, so they make good workers and don't contribute to social upheaval. 1865-1877 African Americans mobilize to bring public education to the South for the first time. After the Civil War, and with the legal end of slavery, African Americans in the South make alliances with white Republicans to push for many political changes, including for the first time rewriting state constitutions to guarantee free public education.In practice, white children benefit more than Black children. 1893-1913 Size of school boards in the country's 28 biggest cities is cut in half. Most local district (or Ã¢â¬Å"wardÃ¢â¬ ) based positions are eliminated, in favor of city-wide elections. This means that local immigrant communities lose control of their local schools. Makeup of school boards changes from small local businessmen and some wage earners to professionals (like doctors and lawyers), big businessmen and other members of the richest classes. 1896 Plessy v.Ferguson decision. The U. S. Supreme Court rules that the state of Louisiana has the right to require Ã¢â¬Å"separate but equalÃ¢â¬ railroad cars for Blacks and whites. This decision means that the federal government officially recognizes segregation as legal. One result is that southern states pass laws requiring racial segregation in public schools. 1905 The U. S. Supreme Court requires California to extend public education to the children of Chinese immigrants. 1917 Smith-Hughes Act passes, providing federal funding for vocational education.Big m anufacturing corporations push this, because they want to remove job skill training from the apprenticeship programs of trade unions and bring it under their own control. 1924 An act of Congress makes Native Americans U. S. citizens for the first time. 1930-1950 The NAACP brings a series of suits over unequal teachers' pay for Blacks and whites in southern states. At the same time, southern states realize they are losing African American labor to the northern cities. These two sources of pressure resulted in some increase of spending on Black schools in the South. 1932A survey of 150 school districts reveals that three quarters of them are using so-called intelligence testing to place students in different academic tracks. 1945 At the end of World War 2, the G. I. Bill of Rights gives thousands of working class men college scholarships for the first time in U. S. history. 1948 Educational Testing Service is formed, merging the College Entrance Examination Board, the Cooperative Test Service, the Graduate Records Office, the National Committee on Teachers Examinations and others, with huge grants from the Rockefeller and Carnegie foundations.These testing services continued the work of eugenicists like Carl Brigham (originator of the SAT) who did research Ã¢â¬Å"provingÃ¢â¬ that immigrants were feeble-minded. 1954 Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka. The Supreme Court unanimously agrees that segregated schools are Ã¢â¬Å"inherently unequalÃ¢â¬ and must be abolished. Almost 45 years later in 1998, schools, especially in the north, are as segregated as ever. 1957 A federal court orders integration of Little Rock, Arkansas public schools. Governor Orval Faubus sends his National Guard to physically prevent nine African American students from enrolling at all-white Central High School.Reluctantly, President Eisenhower sends federal troops to enforce the court order not because he supports desegregation, but because he can't let a state governor use military power to defy the U. S. federal government. 1968 African American parents and white teachers clash in the Ocean Hill-Brownsville area of New York City, over the issue of community control of the schools. Teachers go on strike, and the community organizes freedom schools while the public schools are closed. 1974 Milliken v. Bradley. A Supreme Court made up of Richard NixonÃ¢â¬Ës appointees rules that schools may not be desegregated across school districts.This effectively legally segregates students of color in inner-city districts from white students in wealthier white suburban districts. Late 1970s The so-called Ã¢â¬Å"taxpayers' revoltÃ¢â¬ leads to the passage of Proposition 13 in California, and copy-cat measures like Proposition 2-1/2 in Massachusetts. These propositions freeze property taxes, which are a major source of funding for public schools. As a result, in twenty years California drops from first in the nation in per-student spending in 1978 to number 43 in 1998. 1 980sThe federal Tribal Colleges Act establishes a community college on every Indian reservation, which allows young people to go to college without leaving their families. 1994 Proposition 187 passes in California, making it illegal for children of undocumented immigrants to attend public school. Federal courts hold Proposition 187 unconstitutional, but anti-immigrant feeling spreads across the country. Resources: Applied Research Center 2012, Historical Timeline of Public Education in the US Retrieved from: http://www. arc. rg/content/view/100/217/ Gaither, M. 2011 History of American Education Chapters two through eight of book Retrieved from https://content. ashford. edu/books/AUHIS324. 11. 1/ Morgan A Time Rime, Influential Events in the History of American Education Retrieved from: http://timerime. com/en/event/1386863/Latin+Grammar+School/ Sass, Edmund @ College of Saint Benedict/Saint John's University American Educational History: A Hypertext Timeline 2013 Retrieved from: ht tp://www. eds-resources. com/educationhistorytimeline. html