Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Identify and give the significance of the east Asia history words Essay - 2

Identify and give the significance of the east Asia history words - Essay Example Kawapata was born to a family of dactor and lost his both parents when he was four he went to be with his grandparents (Holcombe 2011). Burakumin were a oucast group of people that were considered low in the society. Their occupations were considered tainted and therefore were relegated to the lower social class status. by being at the bottom of social class they were discriminated at all aspects of participation in the public. Nixon shock was an economic policy by president Nixon of united states that lead to the end of conversion of American dollar to gold. In the proposal there had also to be 90 days wage freeze for all the Americans and import surch. Japan prime minister realized how weighty the matter was and the toll it took on its people. It puts japan in awkward position in terms of international trade and its people were irritated. This is the description of the non linear relationship between oil prices and the gdp growth. Oil prices have effect on everything and the more the price the more the cost of every unit of production. Oil prices increase affect the economy while decrease does not (Holcombe 2011). Minimata disease was first discovered in minamata city japan. it is caused by severe mercury poisoning. It results when one eat a lot of fish that breeds in water polluted with industrial waste full of methyl mercury. Minimata cause numbness in the feet general muscle weakness and norrowing in field of vision. In its extreme it causes insanity. Animà © are Japanese animated productions both hand drawn and computer drawn. Anime is short form of animation and it started in 1917 in Japan and currently involve, short animated films and movies

Monday, October 28, 2019

Religious belief and organizations Essay Example for Free

Religious belief and organizations Essay Gender issues are a great importance in contemporary society and culture. Although they concern both men and women at present, gender studies are still mainly focused on women because women have been voiceless for so long. Feminism see religion as a product of patriarchy as it only serves the interest of men. Jean holm argues that all religion preaches equality but they do not practice it. This argument derived from her study of cotemporary religions which showed that women are subordinated to the role of men as they do not have a part to play in many religions. For example, in Japanese religions, the women arrange and organize public rituals, but only the men can take part in it. Thus showing devalued and important women are within religious organizations. A Marxist feminist DeBeauvoir believes that there must be a religion for women because if women have their own religion, they cannot be oppressed. So therefore, they have created a feminine bible, where everything is equal between both sexes. Sociologists such as Stark believe that women are physically deprived as they suffer more life crisis than men; so therefore, women are more likely to turn to God as someone that can help them. DeBeauvoir reinforces this statement by saying that religion gives a divine guardian that they long for and gives them hope for a better future in a sexless heaven. Meaning that religion gives women false consciousnesses by making them believe that women would be rewarded in heaven for their sufferings on earth and a heaven where theres equality. However, Saadawi disagrees with the statement that religious teachings are the cause of the oppression and exploitation that women suffer, but blames the patriarchal system. She states that men have literally distorted religion especially in Islam, to socially control women and to serve their own interest, so religion isnt the cause but the interpretation of it by men. Leila Badawi also sees Islam as positive as women have a choice over the three types of Islam and they get to keep their own names. Therefore Islam is not as strict and controlling as members of society put it out to be. Helen Watson justifies this by stating that wearing the veil is a political choice and wearing a veil can be seen as a positive thing to some women. This is because after interviewing some muslin women, Badawi came to a conclusion that muslin women are trying to take a stand against western culture. This is revealed when the women said that wearing the veil makes her proud of her religion and that it felt liberating to have freedom of movement as they can communicate with members of society without being on show. Sociologist Said, says that the west the west have created an orientalist discourse, justifying domination. So therefore, not all religions oppress and exploit women because some women do have a choice on certain things. An example would be Judaism as some women are now allowed to become rabbis and seikheism is now into equality and argues that women have choices.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Lack of Style Essay -- Personal Narrative, Essay About Myself

As I open my eyes to the world around me, I am blinded by the misery and the despair of people. I am subjected to seeing the lack of style exhibited. It is sinful to identify expensive blasà © attire purchased for brand names that are nothing short of atrocious. In defense to this calamity, I can bring the world an extensive fashion insight, a view not a single person has tackled before. Combined textures, fabrics, and designs, undiscovered brands, form fitting and flattering attire. I can make appearances at modern and splendor fashion shows. Tying in the styles exhibited into everyday wear; combined with taste and sophistication. I can reveal different fashions for different personalities, and help people uncover their inner-character. I can inform the public of colors that look good together, and identify clothes you shouldn’t be caught dead wearing. As a fashion journalist, I will close the windows of yesterday and open doors of today and tomorrow. Identifying trends, rev ealing hip shops, and traveling to fashion exhibits, overpriced name brands will be replaced with glamorous st...

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Characters’ Transformation Essay

Pride and Prejudice is one of the most popular novels written by Jane Austen which was first published in 1813. It is more than a story of love which revolves around the lives of the Bennett family and the wealthy male visitors of Hertfordshire. The wide variety of personalities in the story contributed to the novel’s attractive and compelling features to date. However, the novel apparently portrayed several transformations in relation to the main characters. Elizabeth Bennet and Fitzwilliam Darcy were clearly different kinds of people who later proved themselves to be the ideal match for each other. Clearly, the transformation of Elizabeth and Darcy’s characters were made possible by their own pride and prejudices against each other. This fact, therefore, illustrates the idea that the character transformation would most likely not occur without the shortcomings and hasty judgments of the two main characters of the Jane Austen’s famous novel. Character Transformation Thoroughly reviewing the whole context of the story, the diverse personalities of the characters are what made it possible to arrive in a certain character transformation. Each character is provided a characteristic that is distinct to other characters. Elizabeth Bennett, an interesting character indeed, possesses traits which are very much different from her sisters. Here is one of her statements to Darcy included in Chapter 19 where she rejects him the first time he proposed to marry her and considered to be one of the pivotal turns in the story which caused the change in both Elizabeth and Darcy’s character: I do assure you, Sir, that I have no pretension whatever to that kind of elegance which consists in tormenting a respectable man. I would rather be paid the compliment of being believed sincere. I thank you again and again for the honor you have done me in your proposals, but to accept them is absolutely impossible. My feelings in every respect forbid it. Can I speak plainer? Do not consider me now as an elegant female, intending to plague you, but as a rational creature, speaking the truth from her heart (Austen 97). Elizabeth Bennett’s character speaks much of a strong personality which is extremely opinionated and bold. Unlike her younger sisters, she does not allow social status and wealth to interfere with her standards for love. However, in her statement, prejudices toward Darcy are evident for she has already judged him without knowing him well first. However, at the end of the story, she regrets having misjudged the man upon knowing the real Fitzwilliam Darcy. On the other hand, Darcy’s character also reveals pride and prejudice on his first impression towards Elizabeth. His statement where she declared Elizabeth as tolerable but not beautiful enough to interest him because of her poor social status discloses how proud he was to avoid being acquainted with such a woman (Austen 9). Similarly, he took back his word when he found out how interesting and intelligent Elizabeth was which led him to confess his feelings and offer a marriage proposal. Unfortunately, his first proposal was rejected. Upon the end of the novel, it is reasonable to conclude that Elizabeth Bennett and Fitzwilliam Darcy actually have similar characteristics which can be considered ironic. Both are intelligent, witty, opinionated, and proud. There are also instances when they have exposed acts of prejudices towards some characters in the story, primarily themselves. Elizabeth deemed Darcy to be an extremely arrogant and proud man when she accidentally heard him say that he was not interested in her due to her poor status in the society. She thought him to be a spoiled wealthy man who is unsociable and selfish. In return, Darcy also showed his prejudices towards her by thinking that she was not right for him because she belonged to the lower class part of the society. Hence, the situation indicates how their impulsive and superficial judgments of each other led them to take back their words and eradicate their pride and prejudices towards each other. They gradually transformed into humble beings who were capable of admitting and accepting their shortcomings. According to Christopher Booker, author of The Seven Basic Plots: What we see here is a story completely shaped by the underlying form of Comedy, but in a new kind of treatment where the conventions about misunderstandings, disguises, failure to recognize identity and ‘dark’ figures getting caught out are no longer presented in the terms of the old stage devices, but rather more subtly, in terms of the gradual revelation of people’s true character from behind first mistaken impressions, and the discovery of true feelings, in a way which corresponds more to our experience of life (Booker 134). Thus, two people, even with similar characteristics may not have similar outputs and can still be regarded contradictory in terms of beliefs. Like the characters in the story, all have distinct personalities which enabled them to decide the way they did. If Elizabeth did not hastily judged Darcy in the first place which led her into rejecting his first marriage proposal, Darcy would not have humbled himself into further pursuing Elizabeth despite her initial rejection. He would not have rescued her family from social disgrace and reveal his true nature. Simply put, Elizabeth would not have change her opinion about Darcy and most probably reject him still. She would not have fallen in love with him and change her ways of being filled with prejudices. The following scenarios created a huge impact in the maturity and development of the characters in the story which proves that the transformation is indeed dependent on the characters’ actions and decisions. According to Nhu Le’s online article entitled, The Individualization of Elizabeth Bennet, she points out that: Although Elizabeth comes to agree that Darcy’s previous actions were indeed justified . . . this transformation â€Å"disables† Elizabeth’s capacity to arrive at, and act upon, her own judgments. On the contrary, Darcy’s letter strengthens Elizabeth’s independence of mind. By accepting the fact that she has misjudged Darcy, Wickham, Jane, and Bingley, Elizabeth sharpens her ability to discern character. In turn, she develops a solidly based self-confidence (Le). As one critic puts it, â€Å"Both Elizabeth Bennet and Darcy develop an awareness of their place in the community and a recognition of the effects of their own speech† (Colebrook 158). Conclusion Clearly, the arguments stated above identify the concept that Elizabeth and Darcy’s character transformation would not have been possible without their mistakes and initial false impressions of each other. This validates the fact that their development as individuals is highly rooted from their decisions and hasty judgments—or rather their own pride and prejudices. Works Cited Austen, Jane. Pride and Prejudice: A Novel. London: R. Bentley. 1853. Booker, Christopher. The Seven Basic Plots: Why We Tell Stories. New York: Continuum International Publishing Group, 2005. Colebrook, Claire. Irony. London: Routledge, 2004. Le, Nhu. The Individualization of Elizabeth Bennet. 16 December 2008.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

How Is Curley’s Wife Presented †Victim or Villain? Essay

Curley’s wife is the only women at the ranch in Of Mice and Men. She is generally portrayed as a young, lonely, bored and childish girl. â€Å"Baloney!† is her ‘word.’ This single word shows that she thinks she is a movie star. No one really talks like this. All the way through the book, it is evident this is how she sees her life; unreal, like a movie and dramatic. Curley’s wife is talked about before she is seen in the book. The first actual mention of her is ‘wife.’ Already it has been established that she has no name, she is just Curley’s wife. The men see her as a women, not as a real person. The swamper gives his opinion straight away on her. He immediately agrees that she is ‘purty’ but has ‘got the eye.’ This shows that the men see her as just a pretty girl, who means nothing. The fact that they mention she has the eye gives the impression that the men have been watching her, and are curious about her, as they have noticed this. This also shows that the men see her as provocative, and the swamper gets this impression over to George straight away, so all the book he treats her in a biased way, because of what was said then. He then describes her as ‘†¦a tart.’ This is very discriminatory and shows what most of the men think about her. They do not understand her, so she must be a tart! The swamper also invited George to ‘look her over.’ They are treating her like a possession, not a human being. Curley’s wife’s first appearance happens soon after George and Lennie hear about her. She stands in the doorway ‘looking in.’ This puts her immediately in place as the outsider, always looking in, never part of the action. She is described as ‘heavily made up’ and this tells you a lot about her. There is no reason to be heavily made up on a ranch, so she must have to much time on her hands. The fact she is wearing so much makeup tells us that Curley’s wife is bored. Also her hair is in ‘little rolled clusters,’ something which takes an extreme amount of time, pointing further to the fact that she is bored. Her ‘cotton house dress’ and ‘red mules’ are completely inappropriate dress for a ranch, and are actually quite expensive, film star clothes, giving us the impression that she thinks a lot about herself. When she speaks, it is evident she is socially awkward, as she doesn’t introduce herself or even say hello, just states that she is ‘lookin’ for Curley.’ Her voice is ‘nasal, brittle,’ which is not sexy, even though this is how she portrays herself through her makeup and clothes. When George answers her,  she doesn’t leave, but asks â€Å"Your the new fellas†¦ aint you?† This shows that she wasn’t actually looking for Curley, she is just trying to start up a convocation and doesn’t really know how to do it, further pointing at the fact she is socially awkward. Also she moves so her body is ‘thrown forward,’ trying to show off her best assets to the new guys, so she thinks a lot about herself and is a massive flirt! However, this idea as changes when she ‘bridles’ under Lennie’s eyes. This shows that she doesn’t actually like being looked at, and is uncomfortable with men looking at her. Therefore, surely this points to the fact that she isn’t a tart! When she offers to go somewhere else, she says it ‘playfully’ as if she is wishing the men will ask her to stay, as she wants the company and again is flirting. Throughout this, George has hinted that he wants her to go away four times, but she is either ignorant and has not got the message or is just plain lonely and doesn’t care if they want his company or not. Her next sentence, ‘Nobody can’t blame a person for lookin’ is very staged. Again, this wording is only used in the movies and her line sounds fake and practised. It is almost like she is play acting, and unreal. When Slim arrives, and tells her straight that she can’t be looking very hard she turns ‘apprehensive’ and ‘hurries away.’ This shows that she is actually quite scared that the Slim knows what she is up too, and also that she is quite scared of Curley. Her first appearance confirms the stereotypes that were placed on her before we met her. However, these stereotypes do not hold up through the book. Her second appearance is in Crooks’ barn. She straight away gives her usual excuse for being around the men ‘any of you boys seen Curley?’ It is obvious that she again is not really looking for Curley, just wants the company. Also the word boys shows that she doesn’t really considers Crooks Candy and Lennie men, as they both have what she considered bad quality’s therefore they are not rea l men. She again is ‘heavily made up,’ which shows that she is bored and has too much time on her hands. She calls Crooks, Candy and Lennie the ‘weak ones,’ even though Lennie is obviously far from weak. She identifies them as weak because they are the unpopular ones, she knows how to hurt them, but is only doing this as she is angry at being left behind herself. By saying this she is also identifying herself as weak, this is why she really said ‘they left the weak ones behind,’ she is including herself in that. Also by saying she  knows where Curley is, â€Å"I know where they all went,† she is admitting that she is not in Crooks’ room to look for him and that she is just craving company. She regards them ‘amusedly’ showing that she has no respect for these ‘weak’ men, before giving her view on mankind. When Crooks mentioned her husband, she really lets off what she feels for him, â€Å"Swell guy, ain’t he?† She brings up Curley’s hand, as she wants the gossip, as when she asks her face is ‘interested.’ When she doesn’t believe his answer she says her favourite word, â€Å"Baloney!† This, as I said above, is a childish and movie star attitude, showing that she thinks she is living in a fairy tale. Next, she shows us how much contempt she fe els for her life, â€Å"An’ what am I doin’?† She knows that she regrets marrying Curley and feels her life is going nowhere. She then decided the only way to interest is to insult, and called the men ‘nigger,’ ‘dum dum’ and ‘lousy old sheep.’ She is taking out her anger at her man being in the cat house and her life going down the toilet and the men, who can’t do anything about her. She doesn’t even care when Candy tells her where to go, just replies in her film star way with â€Å"Baloney† showing she doesn’t care a jot! She barely flinches when Candy insults her, and turns her attentions to Lennie, where Lennie makes a fatal slip up. The way she just turns her attention to Lennie shows that she is actually hurt by what Candy has said, but is trying to hide it. She is quite sensible with Lennie, but flips her anger on Crooks and threatens to get him ‘strung up on a tree.’ The fact that she needs to throw her anger on to someone shows how reckless she is, and completely not in control of her own emotions. When Lennie threatens to tell she says that â€Å"Nobody’d listen to you.† She knows the men’s weak points and are using their weakness to keep herself safe, a bad quality in a person showing she is selfish. She leaves when Crooks says the guys are back, further showing how scared she is of Curley’s wrath. Her final appearance is in the barn with Lennie, the place where she dies. She came into the barn very ‘quietly,’ showing she is sly and sneaky. She is yet again ‘heavily made-up’ wearing the ‘cotton dress’ with the ‘mules.’ Again, this is completely unsuitable for the ranch and shows she has too much time on her hands and she thinks she lives in a movie, where she always has to be made up. She was ‘quite near’ to Lennie, showing she has no recognition for personal space and is awkward with people. She calls him â€Å"sonny boy† which is again only a thing a movie star  would say, and is very patronising towards Lennie. From this you can tell that she really is selfish, and doesn’t realise how much her words can hurt people. She ‘laughed’ when Lennie refused to talk to her, she is either ignorant, completely stupid, or doesn’t care if Lennie wants her there or not! When he refused again she knelt ‘beside him;’ she will not take no for an answer! She uses emotional blackmail on Lennie, as she says she gets ‘awful lonely,’ which shows she is very crafty and actually cleverer then she is made out to be, though she doesn’t use her intelligence for positive things. When she sees the puppy; â€Å"Why, he’s dead!† we see that she is chocked, and wary of Lennie now. This also shows us that she has got a heart! When she starts telling her story, neither of the two listen to each other. She doesn’t seem to care though, and refuses to see that Lennie isn’t interested. We find out the reason for her movie star addiction, and see her naivety as she actually thinks the man wrote to her; â€Å"I never got that letter†¦I always thought my ol’ lady stole it. We find out she married out of spite; â€Å"So I married Curley.† This explains her constant flirting with men, she does not love Curley in any way. She is very materialistic as she wants â€Å"them nice clothes like they [movie stars] wear† instead of the actual fame. This shows she doesn’t really understand what being famous is and thinks it’s all about nice clothes. When she realises Lennie isn’t listening she turns ‘angrily’ on him. She thinks her story is amazing, and that she really could be famous, and that everyone should think her life is the most interesting thing in the world. She actually ‘moved away from him a little’ when he moves close to her, giving us another view of her, that she is not a tart, and doesn’t actually like men being close to her! Overall, she dies because of her vanity. She invites Lennie to ‘feel’ her hair. She dies of her own stupidity, as she is too scared to shut up. She dies because she is too naive, to trusting, and much too vain. ‘Let go, you let go!’ Steinbeck portrays her as a girl throughout the entire book. Everytime he mentions her he calls her a ‘girl’ giving us a contrast between the sexy arrogant woman and the young naive girl. Much of how he sees her is portrayed in death. He says that all the ‘meanness,’ ‘plannings,’ ‘discontent,’ and ache for attention,’ are all gone. This shows us that all of her bad quality’s have been made by life, life has made her bitter. He says that her ‘rouged cheeks’ and ‘reddened lips’ made her ‘alive’ in away.  This gives the impression that she is innocent in death, that she is almost a sleeping beauty, and that she is now at peace with herself. In death, she is the poster girl she always wanted to be, and this is how Steinbeck sees her. I think he sees her as a victim, as in death we see a poor innocent girl, not a heartless selfish women. I personally think Curley’s wife is a victim in Of Mice And Men. Life has been hard for her, she has been overcome with pride, pity, lies, stupidity and vanity. She actually died because of her own stupidity, and her death was partly her fault. I feel that her victim qualities outweigh her villain qualities. Yes she always found others to blame, found the bad in people, and criticised everyone in sight. She was lonely, and her mistakes in life backfired on her. I think that the part of the book that shows us she was a victim was not where she was murdered, but actually, was before we even met her, when the boys were talking about her in the barn. When George and Lennie immediately believe what Candy says and immediately stereotype her. The sentence which most classes Curley’s wife as a victim were the words â€Å"I think Curley’s married†¦ a tart.†

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Utilizing Newspaper Advertisem essays

Utilizing Newspaper Advertisem essays The 1920s, 1930s, and 1940s are often considered three of the most controversial, radical, and progressive decades in American history. Many politically, socially, and economically vital events took place during these eras that forever transformed America and its citizens. However, while domestic and global catastrophes such as the Great Depression and World War II enabled certain minorities, such as women, to achieve limited social progresses (temporarily increasing their number in the work force and higher wages), it also provided an opportunity for the society to reinforce traditional perceptions of women. One medium in which this notion is clearly exhibited is in newspaper advertisements. After systematically analyzing several newspaper advertisements from the nationally distributed newspaper, the Saturday Evening Post, from three different decades, separated from one another by exactly ten years starting with 1925, the pitch and language used in these advertisements seemed t o support the idea that despite the historical events that occurred during these time periods, mainstream advertisements consistently reinforced Americas conservative belief that a proper womans place was still in the home taking care of her children and performing domestic tasks. The 1920s, also known as the Roaring Twenties, produced an era of prosperity and well being as the result of the second industrial revolution in manufacturing. Yet, contrary to this popular depiction, Americas increased wealth during this time was not equally distributed among its people: Amid prosperity and progress, there were large pockets of the country that lagged behind. Advances in real income and improvements in the standard of living for workers and farmers were uneven at best. During the 1920s one-quarter of all American workers were employed in agriculture, yet the farm sector failed to share in the general prosperity (...

Monday, October 21, 2019

Ford Motor Company Description Essays

Ford Motor Company Description Essays Ford Motor Company Description Essay Ford Motor Company Description Essay Bradley describes the Ford Motor Company and activity-based costing. He describes the Ford Motor Company as a dominant company within the automotive manufacturing industry, and uses research performed by Egger and Bangers (1998) to define activity-based costing as a tool that measures costs based on segmented activities. Jonathan effectively uses the study to capture the advantages of activity-based costing, and gainfully applies these findings to Ford Motor Company. He illustrates how the use of activity-based costing would support the companys critical success factors by increasing quality levels and improving cycle time. Additionally, Jonathan explains how the utilization of this Contemporary Management Technique would aid Ford Motor Company in effectively dividing costs based on activity, which would allow the company to ensure maximum efficiency throughout all activities. Despite Jonathans knowledgeable response to the discussion board, there are areas which could have been further explored. For example, it would have been beneficial to discuss traditional costing in comparison to activity-based costing. Pan, Braid, and Blair (2014) describe traditional costing as identifying company costs based on the degree of the cost driver (p. 2). By comparing this to activity-based costing, Jonathan would further support and certify his opinion. Additionally, he could have researched studies that specifically analyze activity-based costing on companies within the automotive manufacturing industry. For instance, Anderson (1995) conducted research to identify the impact of General Motors adaptation to activity- based costing through the use of company archives and employee interviews (p. 23-24). The use of studies like this would add credibility to Jonathans recognition of a positive correlation between activity-based costing and Ford : Motor Companys success. Using these supporting topics would illustrate a comprehensive understanding of the technique and its application. Overall, Jonathan successfully described how activity-based costing would be a driving force for the success of Ford Motor Company, and he effectively answered the questions asked in the assignment.

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Quotes From Betty Friedan, Feminist Founder and Writer

Quotes From Betty Friedan, Feminist Founder and Writer Betty Friedan, the author of The Feminine Mystique, helped begin a new interest in womens rights, debunking the myth that all middle-class women were happy in the homemaker role. In 1966, Betty Friedan was one of the key founders of the National Organization for Women (NOW). This is an informal collection assembled over many years. We regret that we are not able to provide the original source if it is not listed with the quote. Selected Betty Friedan Quotations A woman is handicapped by her sex, and handicaps society, either by slavishly copying the pattern of mans advance in the professions, or by refusing to compete with man at all. The only way for a woman, as for a man, to find herself, to know herself as a person, is by creative work of her own. There is no other way. Man is not the enemy here, but the fellow victim. When she stopped conforming to the conventional picture of femininity she finally began to enjoy being a woman. The feminine mystique has succeeded in burying millions of American women alive. The only kind of work which permits an able woman to realize her abilities fully, to achieve identity in society in a life plan that can encompass marriage and motherhood, is the kind that was forbidden by the feminine mystique, the lifelong commitment to an art or science, to politics or profession. It is easier to live through someone else than to become complete yourself. A girl should not expect special privileges because of her sex but neither should she adjust to prejudice and discrimination. The problem that has no name - which is simply the fact that American women are kept from growing to their full human capacities - is taking a far greater toll on the physical and mental health of our country than any known disease. Each suburban wife struggled with it alone. As she made the beds, shopped for groceries, matched slipcover material, ate peanut butter sandwiches with her children, chauffeured Cub Scouts and Brownies, lay beside her husband at night - she was afraid to ask even of herself the silent question - Is this all? No woman gets an orgasm from shining the kitchen floor. Instead of fulfilling the promise of infinite orgasmic bliss, sex in the America of the feminine mystique is becoming a strangely joyless national compulsion, if not a contemptuous mockery. It is ridiculous to tell girls to be quiet when they enter a new field, or an old one, so the men will not notice they are there. A girl should not expect special privileges, because of her sex, but neither should she adjust to prejudice and discrimination. Men werent really the enemy they were fellow victims suffering from an outmoded masculine mystique that made them feel unnecessarily inadequate when there were no bears to kill. Strange new problems are being reported in the growing generations of children whose mothers were always there, driving them around, helping them with their homework - an inability to endure pain or discipline or pursue any self-sustained goal of any sort, a devastating boredom with life. It isnt that I have stopped being a feminist, but women as a separate interest group are not my concern anymore. If divorce has increased by one thousand percent, dont blame the womens movement. Blame the obsolete sex roles on which our marriages were based. Aging will create the music of the coming century. You can show more of the reality of yourself instead of hiding behind a mask for fear of revealing too much. Aging is not lost youth but a new stage of opportunity and strength. Just as darkness is sometimes defined as the absence of light, so age is defined as the absence of youth. Its a different stage of life, and if you are going to pretend its youth, you are going to miss it. You are going to miss the surprises, the possibilities, and the evolution that we are just beginning to know about because there are n role models and there are no guideposts and there are no signs. As we approach the millennium, I find it astonishing that I have been part of a movement that in less than forty years has transformed American society so much so that young women today seem to find it impossible to believe that women were once not seen as equal to men, as persons in their own right. Elizabeth Fox-Genovese, an eminent historian who I am not sure considers herself a feminist at all, said recently that never in history had a group transformed their conditions in society so rapidly as in the modern American womens movement. Quotes About Betty Friedan Nicholas Lemann Feminism is diverse and contentious, but, in its current manifestation, it began with the work of a single person: Friedan. Ellen Wilson, in response to Friedans The Second Stage Friedan is really saying that feminists should embrace the current trend toward mindless sentimentality about family and abandon our abrasive habit of analyzing and criticizing it.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

EVALUATE THE MAIN EU REGULATORY REACTIONS TO THE FINANCIAL CRISIS Essay

EVALUATE THE MAIN EU REGULATORY REACTIONS TO THE FINANCIAL CRISIS INCLUDING THE CHANGES TO THE EU REGULATORY PROCESS FOR FINANCIAL SERVICES - Essay Example Evidently, the financial crisis began in the second quarter of 2006 in United States. To this end, there were significant losses registered banks in United States as a result of sub primal foreclosures of mortgages (Chrisdoulaki, 2010). Consequently, since the mega banks in European Union and United States were operating under business models which were similar, the financial distress facing the United States were replicated in the European Union. To this end, the mega banks located on both the European Union and United States suffered from under-capitalization and insufficient liquidity reserves. Evidently, the financial regulations of the European Union are carried out at the continental level as well as within the individual countries. The European regulatory response to the crisis was significantly slower to that of the United States. The onset of the decline in profits within the United States was immediately reflected by a similar decline in profits by E.U banks (Clark, Feldman , & Gertler, 2000). The German government and regulators in the finance industry requested the European Commission to bail them out within six months after the crisis began. The bail out of 9 billion Euros was granted and was directed at the IKB German Bank (Grote, & Marauhn, 2006). Furthermore, the governments of other member countries of the European Union pumped in capital within their financial institutions. Examples included the Northern Rock bank located in the United Kingdom. The fast pace of the spread of the financial crisis was not unexpected since most of the securitized United States debt was originated for distribution to European investors and institutions. To this end, the financial crisis that affected the European Union is blamed on the business model of â€Å"originate-to-distribute† that is synonymous with U.S banks (Mattoo & Sauve?, 2003). Evidently, the large international financial institution adopted this model which allowed the institutions to increase their lending power without disrupting the set capital standards by regulators. Moreover, this model created instruments such as credit default swaps, mortgages guaranteed by securities, and debt obligation that were collaterized (Ferran, 2012). In this regard, such instruments played a part in exploiting weaknesses evident in financial regulatory structures. In addition, under-written mortgages and securities, insufficient coordination within national regulatory bodies, and regulatory arbitrage by the regulators all played a role in undermining the regulatory structures (Smith, 2005). To this end, the challenge of identifying and enforcing effective measures in response to the financial crisis in the European Union has been slowed down since the financial regulations are normally carried out at the member country and European level ( Helleiner, Pagliari, & Zimmermann, 2010). In light of the financial crisis of 2007-2009, the subsequent sections will address the financial regulator y responses carried out by the European Union as well as changes to the EU regulatory process for financial services. Financial Regulatory Reform Plan by the European Union Following the financial crisis of 2007-2009, the European Parliament Committee for Economic and Monetary Affairs met on 21st July 2010. In this regard, they approved a version of The Dodd-Frank Act adopted by the United States. The new version would seek to improve the regulatory bodies for securities, pensions, insurance, and banking sectors. The Act would also have the authority to overrule national governments on pertinent issues. In addition, the plans by the

Friday, October 18, 2019

Evaluation of Routing Protocols Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Evaluation of Routing Protocols - Essay Example Evaluation of Routing Protocols There are many routing protocols available as they define ‘what a router will do and decided for a specific data packet’. There are two types of routing fundamentals on which these protocols are based, named as Static Routing and Dynamic Routing. The following sections contains advantages and disadvantages of each routing protocol specified along with its administrative distance, metrics, periodic updates, triggered updates, partial updates, VSLM / CIDR subnet masking and algorithms. As per network dictionary it is defined as â€Å"Routing Information Protocol (RIP) is a standard for exchange of routing information among gateways and hosts. This protocol is most useful as an â€Å"interior gateway protocol†. It is also knows as Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP). Frame Relay protocol is implemented for WAN networks associated with LAN internetworking. It functions on physical layer and data link layer of the OSI model, to endow with robust and efficient mechanism for transmitting data. The transmission encompasses multiple routers and switches. Moreover, this protocol is identical to X.25 protocol that activates stations located at the end to share dynamically the network and bandwidth available. Two techniques are associated with Frame relay: As it is based on packet switching, the two techniques are Variable length Packet technique and statistical multiplexing. However, frame relay

More stewardship is needed Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

More stewardship is needed - Essay Example In terms of the planet's resources, stewardship would simply entail taking care of what one has, whether an individual, family, company, or government. Now we come to the crux of the problem, being the aforementioned. Everyone is different and there is no common agreement in regard to "the needs of the people." In thinking stewardship, fashion takes a back seat. In developed nations, fashion is part of success. Since each nation and government is divided into sections of differing cultures, we can view the United States as a good example of where stewardship takes on different meanings; The region of the Pacific Northwest carries the trophy for being ecologically aware, having begun some of the nation's first recycling programs for glass, aluminum and plastic back in the '70's. One part of stewardship is responsibly disposing of waste, and as the population grows, so does waste. The term, "reduce, reuse, recycle" abounds in stewardship thinking. Stewardship is a big inconvenience. It means we must think about what we do, what we use and how we get rid of it.

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Environment vs Economic Impact Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Environment vs Economic Impact - Research Paper Example Environmental Economics is concerned with the theoretical and empirical studies of the economic effects of environmental policies all over the globe and it suggests measure of mitigation of the effects. There are many economic activities as carried out by different people in the world. The range and type of the activities are heavily dependent on the level of development of the communities in question. For example, during the ancient times, African communities were known to carry out economic activities such as trade, keeping of livestock and cultivation of land among others while at the same time the western countries were involved in the industrialization processes as the main economic activity. The economic activities may harm the environment if not well checked. Some economic activities are very detrimental to an extent that governments throughout the world have banned them. Almost all economic activities carried out have an detrimental effect to the environment and therefore it is crucial to manage the activities to make sure that we don’t continuously erode the environment and also we should severally conserve the environment to make sure that a good environment is always available for the humankind (Jeroen 43). Sustainable development occurs only when the three pillars of development namely social, political and economic are balanced. Environmental stability is part of the social pillar. Current situation of the Environment vs. economic impacts Increases economic growth in the world has led to increased pollution in the world which can be categorized into Water pollution, Air pollution, Solid waste pollution, Noise pollution and Land or Soil pollution. The increasing industrialization in the world has led to the production of heavy machineries, motor vehicles and other motorized locomotive machines such as airplanes, trains, cranes and ships among others. The increased mechanization has led to the swiftness through which goods have been moved from one place to the other and people have been able to move at a very fast pace from one region to the other. This fast movement has enhanced connection of different region and this has facilitated more trade and therefore more economic growth in nations. However, there has been consistent air pollution which contaminates the air in the immediate environment of human beings. Research has shown that increased CO2 emission leads the depletion of the ozone layer. Depletion of the ozone layer tends to allow the dangerous sun rays to hit the earth and in turn leads to cancers and skin diseases. The motorists also make a lot of noise leading to noise pollution which leads to poor hearing capabilities. Companies involved in the production of the machineries and industrial goods are also involved in emission of effluents which in turn lead to water pollution. Water pollution affect the population using the water in a multiple of ways; for instance livestock drinking the contaminated water die , human beings taking the water will also die and most importantly the plants which take up the water will get contaminated (Harris 43). The contaminated water also reduces the nutrients available for plant uptake through displacements of ions in the soils and thus the plants may face eventual drying and death. The contaminated water effluents are also taken up by human beings in form of vegetables especially those grown in the urban areas. Trash and garbage is a commonly seen scene in most urban regions in the world. It is a major

Marketing plan for Grey Goose Company Case Study

Marketing plan for Grey Goose Company - Case Study Example petitive price and extra ordinary taste, its level of preference is extremely high among the middle class of the society and so its brand value and market share is also quite high as compared to many other rival players such as Smirnoff, Skyy etc in the market of America. In spite of extreme aggressiveness, the demand and preference of Grey Goose Vodka is extremely high in the market of America as compared to other rivals. This is mainly due to the utilization of the special customized technology, which mixes potatoes in a unique way so as to present a unique quality and taste. Thus, due to this unique feature, the level of preference of Grey Goose Vodka is extremely high in the market. Moreover, as the vodka of Grey Goose might be consumed in both neat as well as in mixed way, so its level of demand is extremely high as compared to others. Thus, due to these above mentioned features, the sustainability and position of the organization of Grey Goose increased to a significant extent in this age of competitiveness. Positioning is the process of locating a specific product within the minds of the customers among many other rival brands in order to improve its total sale and market position. The organization of Grey Goose might try to re-position itself as a premium brand offering a wide range of superior and healthy malt spirits such as Grey Goose La Poire, Grey Goose L’Orange, Grey Goose Le Citron and many others. However, in order to improve its demand and customer base, it promoted itself as a healthier drink with superior quality, sophistication as well as modernity. Furthermore, in order to improve the sustainability and market share, all the products of Grey Goose are prepared from finest quality of ingredients that increased its level of preference among the adult section of the society. Hence, in spite of being a premium brand, its market share and total sale is quite high, due to its healthier taste as compared to others as presented below. Thus, from

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Environment vs Economic Impact Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Environment vs Economic Impact - Research Paper Example Environmental Economics is concerned with the theoretical and empirical studies of the economic effects of environmental policies all over the globe and it suggests measure of mitigation of the effects. There are many economic activities as carried out by different people in the world. The range and type of the activities are heavily dependent on the level of development of the communities in question. For example, during the ancient times, African communities were known to carry out economic activities such as trade, keeping of livestock and cultivation of land among others while at the same time the western countries were involved in the industrialization processes as the main economic activity. The economic activities may harm the environment if not well checked. Some economic activities are very detrimental to an extent that governments throughout the world have banned them. Almost all economic activities carried out have an detrimental effect to the environment and therefore it is crucial to manage the activities to make sure that we don’t continuously erode the environment and also we should severally conserve the environment to make sure that a good environment is always available for the humankind (Jeroen 43). Sustainable development occurs only when the three pillars of development namely social, political and economic are balanced. Environmental stability is part of the social pillar. Current situation of the Environment vs. economic impacts Increases economic growth in the world has led to increased pollution in the world which can be categorized into Water pollution, Air pollution, Solid waste pollution, Noise pollution and Land or Soil pollution. The increasing industrialization in the world has led to the production of heavy machineries, motor vehicles and other motorized locomotive machines such as airplanes, trains, cranes and ships among others. The increased mechanization has led to the swiftness through which goods have been moved from one place to the other and people have been able to move at a very fast pace from one region to the other. This fast movement has enhanced connection of different region and this has facilitated more trade and therefore more economic growth in nations. However, there has been consistent air pollution which contaminates the air in the immediate environment of human beings. Research has shown that increased CO2 emission leads the depletion of the ozone layer. Depletion of the ozone layer tends to allow the dangerous sun rays to hit the earth and in turn leads to cancers and skin diseases. The motorists also make a lot of noise leading to noise pollution which leads to poor hearing capabilities. Companies involved in the production of the machineries and industrial goods are also involved in emission of effluents which in turn lead to water pollution. Water pollution affect the population using the water in a multiple of ways; for instance livestock drinking the contaminated water die , human beings taking the water will also die and most importantly the plants which take up the water will get contaminated (Harris 43). The contaminated water also reduces the nutrients available for plant uptake through displacements of ions in the soils and thus the plants may face eventual drying and death. The contaminated water effluents are also taken up by human beings in form of vegetables especially those grown in the urban areas. Trash and garbage is a commonly seen scene in most urban regions in the world. It is a major

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Human rights issues Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Human rights issues - Essay Example The human rights declaration in 1948 was a major achievement for the United Nations. This was because, from different regions in the world, the human rights documents included values which were to be applied globally to all citizens across the world irrespective of gender, race or ethnicity. Moreover, the basic functions in which human rights were created to serve were to ensure equality among men in different spheres of life, and endowed individuals with an opportunity to have life, liberty and happiness in all corners of the planet. Human rights apply in all major contexts which characterized daily human activities around the planet. They are social, physical, emotional, and economical amongst others. What this simply means is that the values stated in the human rights document are applicable in all aspects of life. An example is when trading, there are human rights values which both parties must abide to exercise equality. The topic of human rights is of extreme importance to me b ecause in my understating it has made my world a better place. Unlike before where the world was full insecurities, today I know with course I can travel to anywhere within my country and to freely interact with any individuals whosoever I wish without developing fear or being discriminated because of gender, race or ethnicity. In addition, to other individuals, human rights is of extreme importance because in a century or year, characterized by globalization

Monday, October 14, 2019

America & Globalization Essay Example for Free

America Globalization Essay Abstract The purpose of this paper is to explore the idea that American corporations are working with international companies to help boost the economy. The paper focuses on the use of globalization as a primary tool towards accomplishing that goal. The paper also provides the reader with views from both supporters of globalization and opponents as well. The articles used for this paper give very interesting facts as well as views on both sides of the socio-economic table. In U.S Liberal Politics author Deborah White’s article â€Å"Pros and Cons of Free Trade† she discuses globalization in relation to free trade agreements and provides both pros and cons as well as a generalized definition of free trade. Meanwhile, Gary Hufbauer provides a more supporting article on Globalization supplied with studies and debates. As for Chris Isidore’s article, it focuses generally on the recessions from past to present and what trends are different and remain the same when it deals with the progression of the economy. Lastly, Wikipedia’s definition of †Globalization† lays out in detail the history, timeline, business applications, and etc. about the economic reference. In like manner, this paper examines the overall analysis of globalization and how it relates to boosting the economy. America Globalization One of the biggest topics today in America’s current events is the U.S. economy and the need for an economical boost. The U.S. declared the latest recession the biggest since the Great Depression. According to Chris Isidore (2010, p.1), â€Å"The Great Recession started in December 2007 and ended June 2009†. However, this information does nothing for the many Americans out of work, over-debt in their mortgage, and uncertain about their financial future. Nevertheless, seemingly, the American corporations have worked hard to try to find ways to help fellow Americans and boost the economy back to its median. One of the ways big corporations think will help is the use of Globalization. According to Wikipedia (2012, p.1) by definition, â€Å"Globalization refers to the increasingly global relationships of culture, people, and economic activity. It is generally used to refer to economic globalization: the global distribution of the production of goods and services, through reduction of barriers to international trade such as tariffs, export fees, and import quotas†. Comparatively, the United Nations Economic and Social Commission have also written that globalization is a widely-used term that can be defined in a number of different ways. When used in an economic context, it refers to the reduction and removal of barriers between national borders in order to facilitate the flow of goods, capital, and services and labor† In contrast, there are just as many people opposed to this idea as those whom support it. Deborah White writes (p.1), â€Å"One angry complaint is that more than three million U.S. jobs with middle-class wages have been outsourced to foreign countries since 1994.† It seems that the biggest obstacle is convincing the middle class that globalization is in fact, a good idea for the economy. Those same opponents believe that free trade has caused more U.S. jobs losses than gains, especially for higher-wage jobs. They also feel that many free trade agreements are bad deals for the U.S. Nevertheless, American corporations in conjunction with government officials are both working with other international companies to help boost our economy. To begin with, American corporations like the idea of boosting the economy through the use of globalization. Henceforth, with treaties like NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement) and organizations like NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) America has been at the forefront of the campaign for the removal of barriers between national borders in order to facilitate the flow of goods, capital, services and labor. Moreover, as White writes (2012, p.2), â€Å"The purpose of free trade agreements is to allow faster and more business between the two countries/areas, which should benefit both.† Statistics show that globalization does help boost the economy. Gary Clyde Hufbauer writes in his article, â€Å"The Peterson Institute calculates that the US economy is approximately $1 trillion richer each year owing to past globalization—the payoff both from technological innovation and from policy liberalization—and could gain another $500 billion annually from futur e liberalization†. These are the numbers that motivate American Corporations. In addition, globalization helps increase sales and profits for U.S. businesses, which ultimately boost the economy. What the middle class does not understand is that globalizations tactics such free trade help create more jobs within the middle class sector for the long term. White also adds (2012, p.2), â€Å"Removal of costly and delaying trade barriers, such as tariffs, quotas and conditions, inherently leads to easier and swifter trade of consumer goods. The result is an increased volume of U.S. sales.† Globalization also helps to develop and strengthen the economy of the poorest countries as well. Some of the biggest benefits of poor countries through tactics like free trade are creating more industrialized nations and increasing the purchase of their natural resources and/or labor services. Condescendingly, there are just as many opponents to globalization and free trade as there are supporters. Many of those that oppose consists of middle class Americans and the congressman they elect. The biggest problem is a fear of the unknown. Middle class Americans don’t want to wait for the â€Å"long-term†. They want to continue to have the same security of employment as they’ve always had, which is understandable. Nevertheless, they also feel free trade agreements cause a loss in higher paying jobs. This is the basis or platform for the argument of the â€Å"War on the Middle Class†. The argument of free trade and globalization, although provides a soaring boost in corporate profits, individual wages stagnate. This leaves no room for the middle-class to advance. As White explains (2012, p.2), While corporate profits soar, individual wages stagnate, held at least partly in check by the brave new fact of offshoring that millions of Americans jobs can be performed at a fraction of the cost in developing nations near and far. All things considered, the determination of whether globalization is good for the economy will continue to be a debatable issue amongst those of different socio-economic groups. Nevertheless, there is no doubt that globalization has its pros and cons. The ultimate goal and mindset of American Corporations behind implementing globalization is to work with international companies in an effort to boost the economy. Famous investor Warren Buffet once said, â€Å"Someone’s sitting in the shade today because someone planted a tree a long time ago.’ Whether that shade tree is globalization, who knows? The ultimate goal is creating jobs and getting the economy back on course. References Deborah White. (2012) US Liberal Politics Pros and Cons of Free Trade Agreement. Retrieved from http://usliberals.about.com/od/theeconomyjobs/i/FreeTradeAgmts.htm Chris Isidore. (September 2010) Economy Recession officially ended in June 2009. Retrieved from http://money.cnn.com/2010/09/20/news/economy/recession_over/index.htm Gary Hufbauer. (May 2008) Answering the Critics: Why Large American Gains from Globalization Are Plausible. Retrieved from http://www.iie.com/publications/papers/paper.cfm?ResearchID=929 Wikipedia. (March 2012) Globalization Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Globalization

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Deep River Shusaku Endo English Literature Essay

Deep River Shusaku Endo English Literature Essay Shusaku Endo has had a long career in literary works. He has written some very compelling novels that dive deep down into the journey of spiritual learning. He has fixated most of his writings on two main crossing issues such as eastern and western cultures specifically between Japanese culture and Christianity. His novels have sited a wide range of issues of cultural and spiritual identity, alienation, and personal pledge to faith. The story he wrote Deep River is a fascinating journey of revelation for the characters involved, especially the relationship between Mitsuko has with Otsu. Otsu and Mitsuko first meet in college, Otsu is an awkward religious student and Mitsuko is a woman who has no real passion for life. She decides she wants to steal Otsu away from the god he believes in. She invites Otsu to a party to ask him about his beliefs, to my surprise he comes clean saying he is unsure of what he believes in. Mitsuko forces Otsu to drink and wont stop forcing him until he forsakes god, but he drinks till he throws up, never giving up on god. No it sounds like these two would never see each other again after something like that. To your dismay Mitsuko cant leave Otsu be, she says he must falsify his belief in god. She then gives him the opportunity to be her boyfriend if he gives up his faith. I honestly cant believe anyone would force that upon someone. To my dismay they end up having sex and dating for several months until she breaks his heart. Otsu now depressed, leaves and doesnt return, although they do of course, meet again. Mitsuko has a problem because she feels no passion in life; she goes through her life and this story with a horrible feeling of emptiness in herself On Mitsukos Honeymoon instead of spending time with her new husband she hears Otsu is in France and searches him out. They meet up and come up with a new word for god onion because to Mitsuko the term god means nothing. Otsu is on the complete opposite page, saying god is everything everywhere. The French actually say he is a heretic for his beliefs that other religions are also true and that god uses both sin and suffering for the greater good. Otsu is opposed by his teachers because of this statement he gives evil lurks within good, and good thingsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦good things can lie within evil as well (65). I believe what Endo is trying to express be that god has the power to convert every sin into some kind of good. Later in the story another quote comes up, god has many faces. I dont think god exists exclusively in the churches and chapels of Europe. I think he is also among the Jews and the Buddhists and the Hindus (121). Otsu wants to live a life of selfless sacrifice for all p eople, which at the time Mitsuko finds to be a waste of time. I believe the reason she seeks out Otsu so many times in the story even though she doesnt really know what it she is searching for she is searching for god which in the end brings love. Otsu signifies a belief in unity of all. He believes in combining all faiths and caring for all mankind, generating an enormous social assembly of love. Even with being called a heretic, Otsu never revokes his beliefs and maintains a strong faith and trust in Jesus. While talking to Mitsuko he decides to tell her he has dedicated his existence to chasing only one thing: the love of that onion, Love is all the onion has imparted to us. The thing we are most lacking in our modern world is love; love is the thing no one believes in anymore; love is what everyone mockingly laughs at, and that is why someone like me wants to follow my onion with dumb sincerity (119). Otsu follows his beliefs to India at the river Ganges. This is a place that is very sacred to the Hindus, they travel here when they are dying with the hope to have their bodies cremated and their ashes spread into the holy river. Otsu goes here to sacrifice himself so he can help these people make the dying journey. He literally carries the people to the river who can barely walk. Sacrifice is the focus of Otsus faith. Jesus is the number one symbol of sacrifice. He gave up his life for mankinds sins. Jesus symbolically lugs all of the anguishes of mankind on his shoulders when he is made to carry his own cross to death. Otsu imitates the carrying of suffering by plainly transporting the deceased and dying on his back to the River Ganges. Otsu sees more than just the task he is doing, he feels something pure and necessary in putting the suffering of others on his shoulders, by sacrificing himself. Mitsuko sees what Otsu is doing as a waste of his own life, because he is getting nothing out of it in her eyes. Otsu knows he will not change the world or cure suffering, he is doing this act of sacrifice for the good of the people, if there is a benefit that comes from it then Otsu knows the act will not be the true good act of sacrifice. By the end of the story you start to get the feeling that Mitsuko finally understands the belief of sacrifice and love for others. She decides to bathe in the holy river joining the Hindus with her own prayer, which she still believes is a lie, she still has that emptiness until she sees the ultimate sacrifice. Sacrifice is to give and receive nothing in return except for happiness in you. To love is to sacrifice; Otsu makes sacrifices for people trying to turn their sorrow into love. The end of the story brings the biggest sacrifice, when Otsu becomes mortally wounded, while saving Sanjo, who is a person who most wouldnt sacrifice for because of his cultural insensitiveness. But because Otsu and his beliefs he saves the man and in the end giving his life. This act makes his sacrifice even greater, he is not sacrificing for a loved one or a family member but for a stranger who does not know or appreciate what Otsu does for him. Otsu has Christ-like, selfless love that rises above all cultural, racial, and religious prejudices to embrace all of humanity, just like the river Ganges, which he saw as a deep and flowing river of love accepting all, rejecting neither the ugliest of men nor the filthiest (185). This is when we finally understand what lies at the heart of Christianity; Love and sa crifice for others. Otsus sacrifice is one of pure love for mankind, deaf, blind and dumb to how pointless it may be.

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Comparing Salem Possessed by Paul Boyer, The Story of the Salem Witch T

Comparing "Salem Possessed" by Paul Boyer and Stephen Nissenbaum, "The Story of the Salem Witch Trials" by Bryan Le Beau, and "The Devil in the Shape of a Woman" by Carol Karlsen The Salem Witch Trials of 1692 spread just about as fast as the Black Plague. This epidemic caused chaos among neighbors in a community. The chronology of events describes an awful time for colonists from June 10th to September 22nd of that year. The books "Salem Possessed" by Paul Boyer and Stephen Nissenbaum, "The Story of the Salem Witch Trials" by Bryan Le Beau, and "The Devil in the Shape of a Woman" by Carol Karlsen all describe these events and provide varying explanations for the epidemic that plagued Salem Village. This review will look at the facts that surrounded the trials and then using those facts will look at the cause stated in each book for the hysteria to compare and contrast with one another. The trials themselves began following an instance involving Betty Parris, Abigail Williams, and Ann Putnam, 3 young girls in the village. (Dufour, 248) The girls were caught performing fortune-telling rituals in the woods outside the village. The claimed at the time that they were trying to find information on the type of man that would be most suitable for them to marry. Soon after this event the girls began to experience hysterical type fits. These fits prompted Reverend Samuel Parris, the father of Betty Parris, to call on authorities to find an explanation for the fits. The explanation they found was very simple: witchcraft. As the months went on more girls began to experience the same sort of events. It was only after intense questioning that the girls revealed the names of those afflicting them: Sarah Osborne, Sarah Good... ... arguments and sufficient evidence to back it up. The remaining problem lies in the fact that there are no survivors to tell the accurate and unbiased story, if such a story exists. In 1692 Salem Village got its "15 minutes of fame" and proved to people the extents humans will go to for the sake of conflict and religion. It should teach a lesson every human being needs to learn, the smallest incident can lead to hysteria of epidemic proportions. BIBLIOGRAPHY Boyer, Paul, and Stephen Nissenbaum. Salem Possessed. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1974. Dufour, Ronald P. Colonial America. Minneapolis, MN: West Publishing Company, 1994. Karlsen, Carol F. The Devil in the Shape of a Woman: Witchcraft in Colonial America. New York: W.W.Norton & Co., 1987. Le Beau, Bryan F. The Story of the Salem Witch Trials. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1998.

Friday, October 11, 2019

Genetically Modified Foods Essay

Scientists have learned how to modify foods in the last decades of the twentieth century. That is, they have learned to manipulate the DNA of plants and animals. Scientists were able to transfer a trait from one organism to another by splicing the DNA of one organism into the DNA of another organism (â€Å"Introduction†). This process changes the genetic makeup of plants and labels these altered foods â€Å"genetically modified organisms. † Food should not be genetically modified because of the wasted food produced and the potential long-term health issues for consumers. Genetic modification of food in the United States began in 1987 with field-testing of tobacco and tomato plants (â€Å"History†). One example of this process would be producing a tomato that is resistant to mildew and rot. This tomato would taste and look the same, but would stay fresh longer. The farmer that grows this genetically modified tomato plant would benefit from a more hardy plant because he would not have as many wasted tomatoes (â€Å"Introduction†). A general assumption is that, with the large population of the world today, genetically modified food is absolutely necessary. This is not true. Ethan A. Huff, a writer for Natural News, says in his article, â€Å"Don’t Believe the Lie: Organic Farming CAN Feed the World,† that, â€Å"organic farming by itself is fully capable of feeding the world. † Huff also says that cows and sheep were meant to eat grass from pastures instead of the genetically modified soy, corn, and grains factory farmers are feeding them. The grains fed to the animals make them sick and require a large amount of resources to produce. If these animals were allowed to graze naturally, in grasses that are not part of the human diet anyway, the grains currently being fed to them could be used for human consumption. Huff also cites humans’ wasting food as a major issue. He states that, â€Å"one-third of the world’s food ends up in the trash heap as waste. † He states that, specifically in developed nations, people tend to purchase more food than their families can consume before the food goes bad. With so much wasted food, genetically modified food is not needed. The health risks involved with genetically modifying food are potentially dangerous. â€Å"‘Several animal studies indicate serious health risks associated with GM food,’ including infertility, immune problems, accelerated aging, insulin regulation, and changes in major organs and the gastrointestinal system† (â€Å"Genetically†). One way of plants are being genetically modified is engineering corn and cotton to produce their own pesticide. This pesticide, called Bt, was produced from soil bacteria and has a history of safe use. In countries such as India and Germany, large numbers of animals died after consuming plants genetically modified to produce Bt. Thousands of sheep died after grazing on Bt cotton plants. In a follow-up study, all sheep fed these modified cotton plants died within thirty days. â€Å"In a small village in Andhra Pradesh, buffalo grazed on cotton plants for eight years without incident. On January 3rd, 2008, the buffalo grazed on Bt cotton plants for the first time. All 13 were sick the next day; all died within 3 days† (â€Å"Genetically†). Other ramifications include issues with reproduction. Tests in animals show that possibilities include premature deliveries, abortions, infertility, prolapsed uteruses, sterility, and death of newborns. â€Å"When male rats were fed [genetically modified] soy, their testicles actually changed color—from the normal pink to dark blue. † (â€Å"Genetically†). In humans, in the US population, â€Å"the incidence of low birth weight babies, infertility, and infant mortality are escalating† (â€Å"Genetically†). With all the complications in test animals, it is a wonder how more people are not concerned about eating genetically modified food. Others may disagree. Potentially life-sustaining foods can be grown quickly and in a short space of time to feed many, which is true, but the truth is that, in testing, these methods of creating foods have done more harm to test subjects than good. Some experts claim that genetically altered foods create biodiversity instead of edging out their more â€Å"natural† cousins, but others argue that biodiversity with lab-created plants are actually killing off non-genetically altered species of plants (Carpenter). A more reasonable approach might be that people should start to be more conscious of what they purchase and discard because it has gone bad. A more prudent use of the world’s food supply might benefit more people than any other alternative. Rationing food may seem tyrannical, but if humans keep generating so much food waste because of the tendency to buy more than is needed, rationing may become the norm. Another alternative, however, and a less harsh one, would be for people to grow their own vegetables. If gardens were as plentiful nowadays as they were in the 1940’s, the growth of so many genetically altered vegetables would be unnecessary. In conclusion, there are many more options available to people than going into a laboratory to change how food is grown. With all of the risks involved in genetically altered food, maybe even ones that are not known because of the relative newness of the research available, it is unfathomable that another way to feed the world has yet been found. Would doing more work on an individual basis really be so bad compared to the potentially life-threatening health problems that today’s scientists are unintentionally giving to the future of the human race? Works Cited Carpenter, Janet E. â€Å"Genetically Engineered Crops Have Had a Positive Impact on Biodiversity. † Biodiversity. Ed. Debra A. Miller. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2013. Current Controversies. Rpt. from â€Å"Impacts of GE Crops on Biodiversity. † ISB News Report. 2011. Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Web. 24 Nov. 2013. â€Å"Genetically Modified Foods Pose Huge Health Risk. â€Å"Opposing Views. 20 May 2009. Web. 20 Nov. 2013. â€Å"History of Genetic Engineering. † American Radio Works. American Public Media. 2013. Web. 24 Nov. 2013. â€Å"Introduction to Genetically Modified Food: At Issue. † Genetically Engineered Foods. Ed. Nancy Harris. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2009. At Issue. Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Web. 20 Nov. 2013.

Thursday, October 10, 2019

Acme Omega

The other plant, located in Cleveland, was purchased by investors and renamed Omega Electronics. The Omega investors hired a new president who had worked in research and development for a large computer manufacturer. Some new research engineers were hired and several Copernicus personnel remained with the company but in new positions. Acme and Omega often competed for contracts to supply components to several large electronics manufacturing firms in the US. Both companies prospered in the mid-sass and early sass as computerized electronics equipment boomed.Acme had annual sales of over $170 million and employed 350 people. Omega was somewhat smaller with sales of $140 million and about 275 people. However, Acme was consistently more efficient and profitable than Omega. Acme – A close-up. Acme's president, Fred Taylor, attributed his company's success to the fact that he and his managers ran a â€Å"tight ship. † They retained the same basic structure that the division h ad when it was part of Copernicus because it was efficient for high volume production of electronics components such as switching devices and printed circuit boards.Taylor noted that, â€Å"Acme regularly undercuts the competition cause of their focus on efficient production. We are regularly the profit leader in this business. † Acme's structure is shown in Figure 1 . Workers are generally satisfied at Acme, but a few managers recently left the company because of the lack of flexibility or variety in their jobs. One recently departed manager stated that Taylor â€Å"knows one way of doing things -? his way. † He went on to say, â€Å"Fried's a good manager, but he did not provide us with much information or much freedom to make decisions. He makes all of the critical decisions himself. Revised version based on J. F. Vega and J. N. Handouts, from The Dynamics of Organization Theory, 1979, 1 984, West Publishing Figure 1 Acme Electronics Organizational Chart President Taylor UP Marketing UP Operations UP Personnel UP Finance Controller Plant Manager Production Research & Development Design Purchasing Shipping Omega – An inside view. Simon Herbert, former head of research and development at Snell Computers, was chosen as president of Omega. Based on his research and development experience at Snell, he claimed that he did not believe in a formal organizational chart.Although he said that his people loud be fit into departments similar to those at Acme, he felt that such departments formed artificial barriers between deferent functional specialists. Herbert stated that, â€Å"we are small enough so that people can usually communicate face-to-face when necessary. † Instead, Omega used a team-based structure that was adapted to fit new projects. Most of Omega's contracts were small and customized. Production runs were generally short. One manager noted that much of his time was taken up trying to understand problems and communicate solut ions.The Head of the Production Design Team noted, â€Å"Simon spends too much time trying to understand problems and communicate with everyone. † Most important decisions get made by the top management team. Part II In 1 993, the electronics component business began to change dramatically. Many of the old circuit boards disappeared from product designs and were replaced by increasingly complex chips. Miniaturization swept the electronics industry. Many complex office machines included on-board processors – basically dedicated computers. Such was the case in the copier industry.In July 1 993, Global Xerography, the company that spun off Acme and Omega, name to the two firms requesting component production for a new generation of copying machines. The component was essentially a specialized processor and memory Engineering unit that would power the copying machine. Once the copiers were in full production, the contract could be worth as much as ASS-$30 million per year. Both Acme and Omega bid on the contract for the initial 100 prototype processor memory components. Although Acme's bid was slightly lower than Omega's, XX decided to award both companies contracts for 100 units each.Ex.'s project manager told both Taylor and Herbert that speed in placement and production of the prototypes was essential. XX had already promised delivery of the new generation copiers by January 1, 1994. Customers were counting on the new products and once word of the new design got out, it would only be a matter of time before competitors began imitating the new design. Not only that, but investors were counting on the new design to add to Ex.'s profits. These demands for speed meant that XX, Acme, and Omega would need to engage in simultaneous design. Design of the components would need to begin before the final copier design was complete.Acme and Omega would have no more than two weeks to produce the first 1 00 prototype components or they would delay final product ion of the copiers. Part Ill As soon as F-red Taylor received the design specifications (July 6, 1993), he sent an email to Purchasing requesting that they determine the necessary parts to be purchased and initiate purchasing. At the same time, Taylor sent the specifications to the Design Department for design and production rendering. Engineering was then given the task to take the output from the Design Department and create the production system for the actual reduction of the prototypes.Production was to take the system and create the actual production facility and schedule production of the prototypes. Taylor sent emails to all department heads stating that speed of production was essential and that all departments should work as efficiently as possible. On July 9, Purchasing discovered that a particular chip supplied by their authorized supplier was unavailable and could not be shipped for at least two weeks. As there were few suppliers for this particular chip, the Purchasing manager assumed that Omega would face the same problem and he did not Reese to find an alternative supplier.He also informed Taylor of the problem who in turn decided that the company should go forward with production without the missing chip. The chip could be inserted once the other production processes had been completed. The Design Department was instructed to design the component in such a way that the missing chip could be inserted later. On July 1 1, Design informed Taylor that the missing chip and would substantially increase the time necessary to assemble the completed components. Taylor saw no alternative and gave approval to go forward with the design and production.The Design Department then gave purchasing specification for the chassis that would hold the memory and processor unit. Since this was a small prototype production, the company's standard procedure was to find an outside source for the metal work. On July 14 Taylor asked for a progress report and was dismayed to learn that Purchasing was still waiting for the chips and for bids on the chassis. Taylor was shocked by the lack of progress and demanded that Engineering begin fabricating the chassis internally. By July 17, all of the necessary parts (except the chip) were available and Engineering had begun producing the hashish.Production had already designed the manufacturing process, so once the parts began flowing production of prototypes began. In their haste to begin production, the Production Department and the process engineers had not consulted extensively with the Design Department or Engineering (who produced the chassis that held the memory and processor unit). The result was a production system that was rather awkward and inefficient. However, there was not sufficient time to stop now and rework the manufacturing process.Taylor and the manufacturing foreman both agreed that the kinks in he system could be worked out after the production of the prototypes. One concern voiced by t he Design team was whether the missing chip could easily be inserted at the end of the production run. That was not clear. On July 18, at about the same time that the first batch of prototypes was coming off the production line, the missing chips arrived. The designers were correct to raise concerns about inserting those chips. The process required technicians to partially disassemble the units and insert the chips. The process was messy and time-consuming.As the last of the 100 units was assembled on July 20, Taylor received a call from the project manager at XX informing him of a design error that the engineers at Omega had discovered on the previous day. Apparently, the original specifications from XX had reversed the installation of a voltage transformer. The XX engineers checked the information from Omega and found that a mistake had been made in the original design. Taylor said that the Acme units were completed and ready to ship. The designer explained that the error had to b e corrected first. The prototypes that Acme had produced would not work.The new design pacifications would be emailed later in the day. When the new specifications arrived, Taylor met with the Production manager to determine what needed to be done. It was determined that the units would once again need to be partially disassembled. The transformers would need to be removed and reinserted. This required substantial labor and re-soldering of the transformers. All of the disassembly and reassembly of the units caused damage to the chassis and some components. The finally reassembly, packaging and shipping of the first 50 units was completed on July 29.However, none of the units were inspected or tested. The final 50 units were shipped on August 2. At Omega, Simon Herbert called a meeting department heads on July 6 after receiving the email of specifications from XX earlier in the day. He told the department heads that they should look over the design specifications so they could begin production as soon as possible. The next day the department heads met to discuss the project and form a project team. At the end of the morning meeting the department heads had designated engineers, designers, production people and a purchasing agent to the new component design-production team.The team began to work closely to determine the necessary components, identify suppliers, and create a production system. Purchasing determined that one particular chip would not be available locally for two weeks. One engineer suggested that they search for alternative suppliers. At the same time, the engineers also determined that it would be faster to produce the chassis internally rather than sending specifications out for bids from contractors. The team also determined that they could modify the design for installing the missing chip at the end of the production process if they were unable to find an alternative source.On July 9 purchasing reported that they found an alternative source fo r chip in Thailand. The chips would be shipped by express mail on July ID and would arrive at Omega on July 13. Although the chips from Thailand were somewhat less expensive, the cost of shipping resulted in the final cost being about 15% higher. The purchasing agent made the decision to purchase the Thai chips without consulting with other team members or with Herbert. By July 17 the production team assembled five sample units to determine if the assembly process would work correctly.The manufacturing process irked flawlessly, however when the units were tested on the bench, they did not work. When the engineers and designers inspected the five sample units, it was obvious to them that the transformers were installed incorrectly. The units were disassembled; the transformers were removed and re- installed; and the units were reassembled. The resulting sample units performed up to specifications. Herbert called the project manager at XX to discuss the problem. On the morning of July 1 8, the project manager confirmed that the original design specifications were in error and that the Omega team was correct.

Blast Furnace

Blast furnace is a continuous unit of shaft-type. The charging of burden is conducted from above, through the typical charging unit, which is the gas damper of the blast furnace. It is reduced rich iron ore (at present time resources of rich iron ore are preserved only in Australia and Brazil), sinter or pellets in the blast furnace. Sometimes granular pellets are used instead of crude ore.Blast furnace consists of five constructive elements: top cylindrical part is top throat, that is necessary for the charging and distribution of burden in furnace; the highest splayed conic part is shaft, where the heating process of materials and the reducing of iron from oxides pass; the widest cylindrical part is belly, in which the process of softening and melting of the reduced iron passes; tapering conic part is bosh, where a reducing gas – carbon monoxide is generated, the cylindrical part is hearth, that is used to accumulate liquid products of blast furnace method – cast iron and slag.And the top element is tuyere zone, where is the injection of combined blast into the furnace, and the lower element is blast-furnace bottom. There are tuyeres on the top of hearth – holes for supplying of heated to high temperature blast. Blast is compressed air, enriched with oxygen and hydrocarbon fuel. At the level of the tuyeres temperature rises to about 2000  ° C. As the distance upward the temperature drops, and it reaches 270  ° C in the top throat. Thus, different temperatures are set at different heights in the furnace, because of that different chemical processes of transition of ore into metal proceed. pic] Blast furnace in  Sestao, Spain. Coke burns off and generates carbon dioxide and large amount of heat at the top part of hearth, where oxygen supply is big enough. [pic][pic][pic][pic][pic] Carbon dioxide, leaving enriched oxygen zone, reacts with the coke and generates carbon monoxide is the main blast furnace method reducing agent. [pic][pic] [pic] Rising upward, carbon monoxide reacts with iron oxides, taking oxygen and reducing to less oxidized oxide: [pic][pic][pic][pic][pic][pic]Resulting from the reaction, the molten metal drips the hot coal down, becoming saturated with carbon, and results in alloy, that contains 2. 14 – 6. 67% of carbon. This alloy is called cast iron. Except carbon, it includes a small part of silicon and manganese. In the number of deciles of a percent sulfur and phosphorus, detrimental impurities, are included in the cast iron composition. Except cast iron, in the hearth slag is generated and accumulated, in which all detrimental impurities gather. Earlier slag was tapped through a slag notch.Now both iron and slag are tapped through the iron notch at the same time, so the contact of cast iron and slag increases while mixing and the part of sulfur cast iron transits in slag. Separation of cast iron and slag passes already beyond the blast furnace – in a runner, with the help of th e plate gate of skimmer arrangement because of different melting liquid densities. Separated from the slag, cast iron proceeds into hot metal ladles, or into mixer ladles. Slag is poured into slag pots through slag runners. Blast-furnace foundationModern furnace together with all constructions and metal structures, lining (brickwork) and burden stock and melting products can have a mass of more than 30 thousand tons. This mass should be evenly transferred to the ground. The lower part of the foundation (sole) is made in the form of a massive concrete slab with thickness of 4 m. Columns lean on the sole, furnace metal structures (shell). The upper part of the foundation (pie) is a monolithic cylinder of refractory compression, on which is the furnace hearth. Blast-furnace hearthBlast-furnace hearth is the lower part of blast furnace, it is cylindrical inside and conic (sometimes cylindrical) due to the outer form. Hearth has cast iron and slag outlet assemblies (iron and slag notches ) and assemblies (tuyeres) for blowing warmed up (at cowper stove) to 1100-1400  ° C, oxygen enriched to 23-25 % air. Hearth blast furnace is the most main part of its construction. It collects up to 1,000 tons and more molten smelting products – cast iron and slag. The burden column, with the mass of 9-12 tons, presses the bottom of the furnace.The pressure of hearth gases is 0. 4-0. 5 MPa, and their temperature reaches 1700-2100  ° C in the coke combustion sources. Coke, liquid cast iron and slag hearth gases move and are restored continuously within the hearth. In fact it is a powerful, continuously moving reactor. In this regard, strict requirements for strength, tightness and fire resistance are demanded to these constructions. The main constructional elements of the hearth are shell, coolers, iron and slag notch, tuyere assemblies. Iron notch Iron notch is a rectangular channel, 250-300 mm broad and 450-500 mm tall.The channel is made in hearth brickwork at the heig ht of 600-1700 mm from the surface of the blast-furnace bottom. Slag notch channels are made at the height of 2000-3600 mm. The iron notch is closed by refractory mixture. The iron notch is opened via drilling out the hole of 50-60 mm diameter with drilling machine. After tapping of cast iron and slag (the tapping of cast iron and slag is carried out through iron notches on large modern blast furnaces), holes are blocked with the help of an electron-beam gun.The electro-beam gun tip gets in and refractory mixture of the notch is supplied under pressure. The blast furnace snag notch is protected by water-cooled elements, which are called slag stopper and compressed-air operated lever-type construction, controlled distantly. Large volume blast furnaces (3200-5500 m ? ) are equipped with four iron notches, working by terms, and one slag notch. The tapping of cast iron and slag from the blast furnace includes the following: 1. opening of the iron notch (if necessary in the slag notch); 2. aintenance, directly connected with leakage of cast iron and slag; 3. closing of the iron notch (if slag was tapped through the slag notch, then closing of slag too); 4. notches and runners repair. [pic] 1. Hot blast 2. Melting zone (bosh and hearth) 3. Reduction zone of ferrous oxide (belly) 4. Reduction zone of ferric oxide (shaft) 5. Pre-heating zone (top throat) 6. Feed of ore, limestone and coke 7. Exhaust gases 8. Column of ore, coke and limestone 9. Removal of slag 10. Tapping of molten pig iron 11. Collection of waste gases Blast Furnace Blast furnace is a continuous unit of shaft-type. The charging of burden is conducted from above, through the typical charging unit, which is the gas damper of the blast furnace. It is reduced rich iron ore (at present time resources of rich iron ore are preserved only in Australia and Brazil), sinter or pellets in the blast furnace. Sometimes granular pellets are used instead of crude ore.Blast furnace consists of five constructive elements: top cylindrical part is top throat, that is necessary for the charging and distribution of burden in furnace; the highest splayed conic part is shaft, where the heating process of materials and the reducing of iron from oxides pass; the widest cylindrical part is belly, in which the process of softening and melting of the reduced iron passes; tapering conic part is bosh, where a reducing gas – carbon monoxide is generated, the cylindrical part is hearth, that is used to accumulate liquid products of blast furnace method – cast iron and slag.And the top element is tuyere zone, where is the injection of combined blast into the furnace, and the lower element is blast-furnace bottom. There are tuyeres on the top of hearth – holes for supplying of heated to high temperature blast. Blast is compressed air, enriched with oxygen and hydrocarbon fuel. At the level of the tuyeres temperature rises to about 2000  ° C. As the distance upward the temperature drops, and it reaches 270  ° C in the top throat. Thus, different temperatures are set at different heights in the furnace, because of that different chemical processes of transition of ore into metal proceed. pic] Blast furnace in  Sestao, Spain. Coke burns off and generates carbon dioxide and large amount of heat at the top part of hearth, where oxygen supply is big enough. [pic][pic][pic][pic][pic] Carbon dioxide, leaving enriched oxygen zone, reacts with the coke and generates carbon monoxide is the main blast furnace method reducing agent. [pic][pic] [pic] Rising upward, carbon monoxide reacts with iron oxides, taking oxygen and reducing to less oxidized oxide: [pic][pic][pic][pic][pic][pic]Resulting from the reaction, the molten metal drips the hot coal down, becoming saturated with carbon, and results in alloy, that contains 2. 14 – 6. 67% of carbon. This alloy is called cast iron. Except carbon, it includes a small part of silicon and manganese. In the number of deciles of a percent sulfur and phosphorus, detrimental impurities, are included in the cast iron composition. Except cast iron, in the hearth slag is generated and accumulated, in which all detrimental impurities gather. Earlier slag was tapped through a slag notch.Now both iron and slag are tapped through the iron notch at the same time, so the contact of cast iron and slag increases while mixing and the part of sulfur cast iron transits in slag. Separation of cast iron and slag passes already beyond the blast furnace – in a runner, with the help of th e plate gate of skimmer arrangement because of different melting liquid densities. Separated from the slag, cast iron proceeds into hot metal ladles, or into mixer ladles. Slag is poured into slag pots through slag runners. Blast-furnace foundationModern furnace together with all constructions and metal structures, lining (brickwork) and burden stock and melting products can have a mass of more than 30 thousand tons. This mass should be evenly transferred to the ground. The lower part of the foundation (sole) is made in the form of a massive concrete slab with thickness of 4 m. Columns lean on the sole, furnace metal structures (shell). The upper part of the foundation (pie) is a monolithic cylinder of refractory compression, on which is the furnace hearth. Blast-furnace hearthBlast-furnace hearth is the lower part of blast furnace, it is cylindrical inside and conic (sometimes cylindrical) due to the outer form. Hearth has cast iron and slag outlet assemblies (iron and slag notches ) and assemblies (tuyeres) for blowing warmed up (at cowper stove) to 1100-1400  ° C, oxygen enriched to 23-25 % air. Hearth blast furnace is the most main part of its construction. It collects up to 1,000 tons and more molten smelting products – cast iron and slag. The burden column, with the mass of 9-12 tons, presses the bottom of the furnace.The pressure of hearth gases is 0. 4-0. 5 MPa, and their temperature reaches 1700-2100  ° C in the coke combustion sources. Coke, liquid cast iron and slag hearth gases move and are restored continuously within the hearth. In fact it is a powerful, continuously moving reactor. In this regard, strict requirements for strength, tightness and fire resistance are demanded to these constructions. The main constructional elements of the hearth are shell, coolers, iron and slag notch, tuyere assemblies. Iron notch Iron notch is a rectangular channel, 250-300 mm broad and 450-500 mm tall.The channel is made in hearth brickwork at the heig ht of 600-1700 mm from the surface of the blast-furnace bottom. Slag notch channels are made at the height of 2000-3600 mm. The iron notch is closed by refractory mixture. The iron notch is opened via drilling out the hole of 50-60 mm diameter with drilling machine. After tapping of cast iron and slag (the tapping of cast iron and slag is carried out through iron notches on large modern blast furnaces), holes are blocked with the help of an electron-beam gun.The electro-beam gun tip gets in and refractory mixture of the notch is supplied under pressure. The blast furnace snag notch is protected by water-cooled elements, which are called slag stopper and compressed-air operated lever-type construction, controlled distantly. Large volume blast furnaces (3200-5500 m ? ) are equipped with four iron notches, working by terms, and one slag notch. The tapping of cast iron and slag from the blast furnace includes the following: 1. opening of the iron notch (if necessary in the slag notch); 2. aintenance, directly connected with leakage of cast iron and slag; 3. closing of the iron notch (if slag was tapped through the slag notch, then closing of slag too); 4. notches and runners repair. [pic] 1. Hot blast 2. Melting zone (bosh and hearth) 3. Reduction zone of ferrous oxide (belly) 4. Reduction zone of ferric oxide (shaft) 5. Pre-heating zone (top throat) 6. Feed of ore, limestone and coke 7. Exhaust gases 8. Column of ore, coke and limestone 9. Removal of slag 10. Tapping of molten pig iron 11. Collection of waste gases